Advance Biomedical Sensors and Transducers

  • Harishchandra Digambar JirimaliEmail author


Biosensors are the devices which detect the biological components or use of biological components for the detection of an analyte. Transducers are of different types, which process and amplify the signals produced by receptors and analyte interaction. The transducers are thermal, piezoelectric, optical and electrochemical. Redox polymers and the bio-elements like enzymes, DNA and proteins are used in biosensors. The biosensors are used for the detection of glucose, cholesterol, hydrogen peroxide, urea, bilirubin, biomarkers.


Bilirubin Biomarkers Biosensor Cholesterol DNA Electrochemical Enzymes Glucose Imunosensors Nanoparticles Optical Polymers RNA Transducer Urea 



H. D. Jirimali thanks to DST SERB young scientist scheme, file number SB/FT/CS-037/2014, and RPS Uka Tarsadia University UTU/RPS/1264/2018. Sincere thanks to Prof. Woonsup Shin who always inspire and guide me to work in the field of biomedical technology for the betterment of mankind.


Antigen In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response in the host organism. Sometimes antigens are part of the host itself in autoimmune disease. Antigens are “targeted” by antibodies

Antibody An antibody, also known as an immunoglobulin, is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that are used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses. The antibody recognizes a unique molecule of the pathogen, called an antigen

Catabolism It is the set of metabolic pathways that breaks down molecules into smaller units, which are either oxidized to release energy or used in other anabolic reactions

Electrocardiogram ECG is a record or display of a person’s heartbeat produced by electrocardiography

Electro-catalyst An electro-catalyst is a catalyst that participates in electrochemical reactions

Electroencephalography EEG is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record the electrical activity of the brain

Field effect transistors FET is a transistor that uses an electric field to control the electrical behavior of the device

Fluorescence resonance energy transfer FRET is a distance-dependent radiationless transfer of energy, from an excited donor fluorophore to a suitable acceptor fluorophore, and is one of the few tools available for measuring nanometer-scale distances and the changes in distances, both in vitro and in vivo

Thermistors It is a solid-state temperature sensing device that acts a bit like an electrical resistor but is temperature sensitive

Thermoforming Thermoforming is a manufacturing process where a plastic sheet is heated to a pliable forming temperature, formed to a specific shape in a mold, and trimmed to create a usable product.

Temperature coefficient It is a coefficient expressing the relationship between a change in the physical property and temperature that causes it


  1. Beden N, Shin W, Ludwig R, Peterbauer CK (2015) iMedPub journals bioelectrochemical behavior of the composite PVP-Os/chitosan as a mediator with different types of enzymes at graphite electrode,pp 1–7Google Scholar
  2. Felix FS, Angnes L (2017) Immunosensors – a powerful tool for analytical. Biosens Bioelectron 102:470. Scholar
  3. Gayathri P, Senthil Kumar A (2014) Electrochemical behavior of the 1,10-phenanthroline ligand on a multiwalled carbon nanotube surface and its relevant electrochemistry for selective recognition of copper ion and hydrogen peroxide sensing. Langmuir 30:10513–10521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Guide P. Introduction to transducers, sensors and actuatorsGoogle Scholar
  5. Hung W, Feng G, Cherng J (2014) Ultrasonics sonochemistry fabrication of piezoelectric components for a tunable and efficient device for DNA delivery into mammalian cells. Ultrason – Sonochemistry 21:819–825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Introduction, A visual temperature sensors with high thermal (2016) pp 6602–6613.
  7. Jagota (2015) A DNA biosensors. pp 1–27Google Scholar
  8. Jirimali HD, Nagarale RK, Lee JM, Saravanakumar D, Shin W (2011) Preparation of PEG tethered ferrocene modified polyacrylic acid/silica composite as an electroactive polymeric platform for biosensors. Electroanalysis 23:2109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Jirimali HD, Nagarale RK, Lee JM, Saravanakumar D, Shin W (2013a) Chitosan-cross-linked osmium polymer composites as an efficient platform for electrochemical biosensors. Chem Phys Chem 14:2232–2236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jirimali HD, Nagarale RK, Saravanakumar D, Lee JM, Shin W (2013b) Hydroquinone modified chitosan/carbon film electrode for the selective detection of ascorbic acid. Carbohydr Polym 92:641–644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jirimali HD, Saravanakumar D, Shin W (2015) Preparation of catechol-linked chitosan/carbon nanocomposite-modified electrode and its applications. Bull Kor Chem Soc 36Google Scholar
  12. Jirimali HD, Nagarale RK, Saravanakumar D, Shin W (2018a) Ferrocene tethered polyvinyl alcohol/silica film electrode for electrocatalytic sulfite sensing. Electroanalysis 30:828. Scholar
  13. Jirimali, H. D., Saravanakumar, D. & Shin, W. Chitosan-Cu-salen/carbon nano-composite based electrode for the enzyme-less electrochemical sensing of hydrogen peroxide. 9, 1–7 (2018b)Google Scholar
  14. Kalyani VL, Sharma V (2016) Optical sensors and their use. In: Medical field, vol 564, pp 3–6Google Scholar
  15. Li F, Winnik MA, Mandelis A (2007) Polypyrrole nanoparticles as a thermal transducer of NIR radiation in hot-melt adhesives. pp 4309–4315.
  16. Malhotra S, Verma A, Tyagi N, Kumar V (2017) Biosensors: principle, types and applications, pp 3639–3644Google Scholar
  17. Measurements E (2008) Transducers and sensors, pp 1–18Google Scholar
  18. Ohba Y, Fujioka Y, Nakada S, Tsuda M (2013) Fluorescent protein-based biosensors and their clinical applications, vol 113. ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  19. Pohanka M (2018) The determination of human albumin by a quartz crystal microbalance immunosensor. Int J Electrochem Sci 13:8471–8480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ponmozhi J, Frias C, Marques T, Frazão O (2012) Smart sensors/actuators for biomedical applications: review. Measurement 45:1675–1688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rizvi MS, Kashani KB (2017) Biomarkers for early detection of acute kidney. 2:1–14.
  22. Saha P, Sen M (2013) Toward optical sensors : review and applications.
  23. Silva M, Cruz H, Rossetti O, Arese A, Oliva A (2004) Development of an optical immunosensor based on the fluorescence of Cyanine-5 for veterinarian diagnostics. Biotechnol Lett 26:993–997CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Thevenot, D. et al. Electrochemical biosensors : recommended definitions and classification to cite this version : HAL Id : hal-00862855 Electrochemical Biosensors : Recommended. (2013)Google Scholar
  25. Transducers for bio medicalGoogle Scholar
  26. Velychko TP et al (2016) A novel Conductometric urea biosensor with improved analytical characteristic based on recombinant urease adsorbed on nanoparticle of silicalite. Nanoscale Res Lett 11:3–8. Scholar
  27. Wang Y et al (2017) Ultrasensitive label-free electrochemical Immunosensor based on multifunctionalized graphene nanocomposites for the detection of alpha fetoprotein. Nat Publ Gr 7:1–10. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUka Tarsadia UniversityGopal-Vidya Nagar, Maliba Campus, SuratIndia

Personalised recommendations