Surface Modifications in Ti-Based Orthopaedic Implants
Research in the domain of various metallic and non-metallic biomaterials has been established to be of immense importance in the recent years since they can directly contribute to improve the quality and long life of human beings. Among a wide range of metallic biomaterials, Ti and its alloys have been extensively used to manufacture implantable components in numerous dental and orthopaedic applications. Their demand in this specific area of application arises owing to its superior biocompatibility resulting from negligible ion release when they come in close contact with body fluids, exceptional corrosion resistance, a specific combination of mechanical strength and toughness, lighter weight and many others.
In further developments, deposition of TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) by means of conventional electro-anodization technique on Ti-based metallic substrate has proved to be an excellent alternative for superior implant applications. As a modified surface, nanotubular surfaces promote cellular interaction compared with conventional flat or polished surfaces.
TiO2-based modified nanotubular surfaces with distinct topography in the nanometric scale offer direct cellular interaction and show promises for tissue regeneration and bone substitute effects.
The present chapter offers a detailed discussion on the synthesis and surface preparation, growth mechanism, morphology and end application of TiO2 nanotube arrays for orthopaedics.
KeywordsBiomaterials TiO2 nanotubes Electro-anodization Tissue regeneration Corrosion
The author expresses his gratitude to Dr. A. Bit for fruitful discussions for writing up this chapter.
Conflict of Interest
The authors confirm that this article content has no conflict of interest.
- Ardjomandi N, Klein C, Kohler K, Maurer A, Kalbacher H, Niederlander J, Reinert S, Alexander D (2012) Indirect coating of RGD peptides using a poly-L-lysine spacer enhances jaw perios-teal cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation into osteogenic tissue. J Biomed Mater Res Part A 100(8):2034–2044CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- ASTM Standard B600 (1997) Standard guide for descaling and cleaning titanium and titanium alloy surfaces, Annual book of ASTM standards, Vol. 2.04. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, pp 6–8Google Scholar
- Brammer KS, Oh S, Frandsen CJ, Jin S (2011)Biomaterials and biotechnology schemes utilizing TiO2 nanotube arrays. In: Biomaterials science and engineering, Intechopen, London, UK, pp 193–210Google Scholar
- Cheng H, Xiong W, Fang Z, Guan H, Wu W, Li Y, Zhang Y, Alvarez MM, Gao B, Huo K, Xu J, Xu N, Zhang C, Fu J, Khademhosseini A, Li F (2016) Strontium (Sr) and silver (Ag) loaded nanotubular structures with combined osteoinductive and antimicrobial activities. Acta Biomater 31:388–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Giavaresi G, Ambrosio L, Battiston GA et al (2004) Histomorphometric, ultrastructural and microhardness evaluation of the osseointegration of a nanostructured titanium oxide coating by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition: an in vivo study. Biomaterials 25(25):5583–5591CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Meimandi-Parizi A, Oryan A, Moshiri A (2013) Role of tissue engineered collagen based tridimensional implant on the healing response of the experimentally induced large Achilles tendon defect model in rabbits: a long term study with high clinical relevance. J Biomed Sci 20:28CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Nakayama I, Suzuki A, Kusumoto Y, Takakuwa K, Ikuta T (1989) Method of forming a thin film by chemical vapor deposition, US 4800105 A, January 1989Google Scholar
- Nasab MB, Hassan MR, Sahari BB (2010) Metallic biomaterials of knee and hip-a review. Trends Biomater Artif Organs 24:69–82Google Scholar
- Ratner BD, Hoffman AS, Schoen FJ, Lemons JE (2004) Biomaterials science: an introduction to materials in medicine. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Tengvall P, Elwing H, Sjöqvist L, Lundström I, Bjursten LM (1989) Interaction between hydrogen peroxide and titanium: a possible role in the biocompatibility of titanium. Biomaterials 10:118e20Google Scholar