China’s Energy Driven Foreign Policies and International Relationships

  • Yuwa Wei


Recent years have seen repeated invitations from the International Energy Agency (IEA) and its member states to urge China to become one of its members. For accommodating this initiative, the member states of the IEA are even considering rewriting the organization’s constitution if necessary. This prompts a round of to be, or not to be discussions in China in the field of public international law. China has been facing significant energy challenges since the 1990s, and has resolved to withstand the challenges by expanding its energy strength abroad through increasing its state shareholdings in some overseas energy companies. However, such attempts have been subject to frequent frustration. The fresh calls made by the IEA and its member countries offer an alternative solution for China to foster international cooperation for weathering energy challenges.


  1. Al Fathi S (2011) In the pipeline: will China join the global energy agency? Gulf News (October 10, 2011, Dubai).
  2. Alhajji AF (2008) What is energy security? Definitions and concepts. Oil Gas Energy Law Intell 6(3).
  3. Bamberger CS (2004) The history of the international energy agency: the first thirty years. CreateSpace, ColoradoGoogle Scholar
  4. Baumann F (2008) Energy security as multidimensional concept. Paper of the research group on European affairs of the centre for applied policy research, no. 1, March 2008Google Scholar
  5. Berrah N, Feng F, Priddle R, Wang L (2007) Sustainable energy in China: the closing window of opportunity. The World Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  6. Blair B, Yali C, Hagt E (2006) The oil weapon: myth of China’s vulnerability. China Secur 3:32–63Google Scholar
  7. Brauch HG, Grin J, Behera NC, Kameri-Mbote P, Mesjasz C, Spring ÚO, Krummenacher H (eds) (2009) Facing global environmental change: environmental, human, energy, food, health and water security concepts. Springer, Berlin/HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  8. Business News Americas staff reporters (2001) Chavez reaches energy agreement with china. Business News Americas (May 28, 2001, Santiago).
  9. Chen Y (2002) China needs to adopt a proactive strategy. People’s Daily Online (March 27, 2002, Beijing).
  10. Communication and Information Office (of IEA), IEA ministers confirm commitment to stabilise CO2 emissions and ensure transition to low-carbon economy, welcome closer co-operation with China, India and Russia.
  11. Downs E (2006) Energy Security Series: China. Brooking Institution reportGoogle Scholar
  12. Downs E (2011) Inside China, Inc: China development bank’s cross-border energy deals. The John L. Tornton China Center at Brookings, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  13. Eberling G (2011) Chinese energy futures and their implications for the United States. Lexington Books, LanhamGoogle Scholar
  14. Editor (1973) Oil crisis, Wikipedia.
  15. Editor (2008) It is not the right time for China to join the OECD, international tax (September 10, 2008).
  16. Editor (2011) China-Latin America bilateral trade volume increased fifteen times within ten years, Xinhua Net (October 9, 2011, Beijing).
  17. Editor (2012a) China–Africa oil cooperation is imperative, China Energy News (July 23, 2012, Beijing).
  18. Editor (2012b) Chinese state media slam hillary Clinton’s speech in Africa, the guardian (August 3, 2012, London).
  19. Editor (2012c) Venezuela: land of opportunities, China daily (June 28, 2012, Beijing). 26
  20. Editor, Go out policy, Wikipedia.
  21. Editor, Kazakhstan–China oil pipeline, Wikipedia.
  22. Editor, People’s Republic of China–Venezuela relations, Wikipedia.’s_Republic_of_China%E2%80%93Venezuela_relations
  23. Ferguson HM (2011) Our energy future: secure, sustainable & together. Paper presented at International Energy Agency ministerial meeting (October 18, 2011, Paris)Google Scholar
  24. Feuerberg G (2008) Growing foreign government investments may threaten U.S. national security, The Epoch Times (Washington, DC, February 14, 2008).
  25. Golley J, Song L (eds) (2011) Rising China: global challenges and opportunities. The Australian National University E Press, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  26. Hoyos C (2010) China invited to join iea as oil demand shift, Financial Times (March 30, 2010, New Jersey).
  27. Husain SR (2010) IEA courting Beijing – to restore its eminence in the energy world. Arab News (April 4, 2010, Jeddah)
  28. International Energy Agency Global Engagement, IEA Website.
  29. International Energy Agency (IEA) (2007) Oil supply security: emergency response of IEA countriesGoogle Scholar
  30. Jewell J (2011) The IEA model of short-term energy security (MOSES): primary energy sources and secondary fuels. Working paper of international energy agencyGoogle Scholar
  31. Jiang J, Sinton J (2011) Overseas investments by Chinese national oil companies: assessing the drivers and impacts, information paper prepared for the standing group for global energy dialogue of the International Energy Agency (International Energy Agency)Google Scholar
  32. Langlois-Bertrand S (2010) The contemporary concept of energy security (contract report of strategic analysis section of defence R&D Canada centre for operational research and analysis, DRDC CORA CR 2010–148, July 2010)Google Scholar
  33. Moran TH (2009) When does a foreign acquisition pose a national security threat, and when not? VOX (September 11, 2009).
  34. Rezny B (2010) Chinese energy cleans up its act, Seeking Alpha (July 27, 2010).
  35. Sagers MJ, Webb J, Vorobyov P (2003) Oil pipeline duel in Eastern Russia entering decisive phase, CERA decision Brief (May 2003)Google Scholar
  36. Scott R (1994) The history of the international energy agency: the first twenty years. OECD/IEA, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  37. Sullivan DS (2008) Introduction. Speech at U.S.–China Forum on sustainable energy and the environment (Beijing, May 20, 2008)Google Scholar
  38. Sun H (2011) China and the IEA: who needs whom more? Caixin Net (June 29, 2011, Beijing).
  39. Tang J (2006) With the grain or against the grain? Energy security and Chinese foreign policy in the Hu Jintao Era, The Brookings Institution working paper, October 2006Google Scholar
  40. Wallander C China’s energy policy in the geopolitical context.’s%20Energy%20Policy.pdf
  41. Wu Z (2007) China aims to diversify oil sources. Asia Times Online (February 28, 2007, Hong Kong).
  42. Yuan T, Wang D (2011) When facing the hearty invitation of the OEDC, National business and finance Weekly (April 21, 2011, Beijing).
  43. Zhang Y (2011) The list of China’s failed cases of overseas takeover bids (Yidaba Website, April 29, 2011).
  44. Zhang Z (2012) The overseas acquisition and equity oil shares of Chinese national oil companies: a threat to the west but a boost to China’s energy security? Energy Policy 48:698–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zhu Z (2008) The US will dismiss no oil producing & exporting cartels (NOPEC) bill and invite China to join the IEA once again, Xinhua Net (May 22, 2008, Beijing).

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuwa Wei
    • 1
  1. 1.Freelance writerMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations