Research Context and Design

  • Carmel Diezmann
  • Susan Grieshaber


Having identified the range of influences that can impact on career progression (Chap.  3), the purpose of this chapter is to explain the research design and context. While some might relegate these matters to an appendix, we consider them worthy of a chapter. Before embarking on details of the research design, the context in which the research originated is described because it marked a significant and new development historically for universities in Australian higher education.


  1. ACIL Allen Consulting. (2013). Benefits realisation review. Retrieved from
  2. Aiston, S. (2011). Equality, justice and gender: Barriers to the ethical university for women. Ethics and Education, 6(3), 279–291. Scholar
  3. Auriol, L., Misu, M., & Freeman, R. A. (2013). Careers of doctorate holders: Analysis of labour market and mobility indicators (OECD science, technology and industry working paper 2013/04). Paris, France: OECD Publishing. Retrieved from Scholar
  4. Australian Government. (2013). 2014–16 mission-based compact – Australian Catholic University. Retrieved from
  5. Australian Government. (2016). Research block grants new arrangements: Allocation calculation methodology. Retrieved from
  6. Australian Research Council. (2014). Excellence in Research for Australia 2015: ERA 2015 submission guidelines. Retrieved from
  7. Bagilhole, B., & White, K. (2008). Towards a gendered skills analysis of senior management positions in UK and Australian universities. Tertiary Education and Management, 14(1), 1–12.Google Scholar
  8. Baker, M. (2009). Gender, academia and the managerial university. New Zealand Sociology, 24(1), 24–48.Google Scholar
  9. Baker, M. (2010a). Career confidence and gendered expectations of academic promotion. Journal of Sociology, 46(3), 317–334.Google Scholar
  10. Baker, M. (2010b). Choices or constraints? Family responsibilities, gender and academic career. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 41(1), 1–18.Google Scholar
  11. Baker, M. (2012). Academic careers and the gender gap. Vancouver, Canada: UCB Press.Google Scholar
  12. Blackmore, J. (2014). “Still hanging off the edge”: An Australian case study of gender, universities and globalization. In N. Stromquist & K. Monkman (Eds.), Globalization and education (pp. 285–303). Plymouth, UK: Rowman & Littlefield Education.Google Scholar
  13. Brinkmann, S., & Kvale, S. (2015). InterViews: Learning the craft of qualitative research interviewing (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  14. Bronstein, P. (2001). Older women in academia: Contemporary history and issues. Journal of Women’s History, 12(4), 184–201.Google Scholar
  15. Commonwealth of Australia. (2009). Powering ideas: An innovation agenda for the 21st century. Retrieved from
  16. Cooray, A., Verma, R., & Wright, L. (2014). Does a gender disparity exist in academic rank? Evidence from an Australian university. Applied Economics, 46(20), 2441–2451. Scholar
  17. Cotter, D. A., Hermsen, J. M., Ovadia, S., & Vanneman, R. (2001). The glass ceiling effect. Social Forces, 80(2), 655–681.Google Scholar
  18. Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4th ed.). Frenchs Forest, Australia: Pearson Australia.Google Scholar
  19. Creswell, J. W., Plano Clark, V. L., Gutmann, M., & Hanson, W. (2003). Advanced mixed methods research designs. In A. Tashakkori & C. Teddlie (Eds.), Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioral research (pp. 209–240). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  20. Dany, F., Louvel, S., & Valette, A. (2011). Academic careers: The limits of the “boundaryless approach” and the power of promotion scripts. Human Relations, 64(7), 971–996.Google Scholar
  21. Diezmann, C., & Grieshaber, S. (2009). Understanding the achievements and aspirations of new women professors: A report to universities Australia. Brisbane, Australia: Queensland University of Technology.Google Scholar
  22. Eagly, A. H., & Carli, L. (2007). Women and the labyrinth of leadership. Harvard Business Review, 85(9), 62–71.Google Scholar
  23. Estes, B., & Polnick, B. (2012). Examining motivation theory in higher education: An expectancy theory analysis of tenured faculty productivity. International Journal of Management, Business, and Administration, 15(1), 1–7.Google Scholar
  24. European Commission. (2016). Meta-analysis of gender and science research. Retrieved from
  25. Gardiner, M., Tiggemann, M., Kearns, H., & Marshall, K. (2007). Show me the money! An empirical analysis of mentoring outcomes for women in academia. Higher Education Research & Development, 26(4), 425–442.Google Scholar
  26. Hazelkorn, E. (2007). The impact of league tables and ranking systems on higher education decision making. Higher Education Management and Policy, 19(2), 87–110.Google Scholar
  27. Hughes, M., & Bennett, D. (2013). Survival skills: The impact of change and the ERA on Australian researchers. Higher Education Research & Development, 32(3), 340–354.Google Scholar
  28. International Association of Universities (IAU). (2012). Affirming academic values in internationalization of higher education: A call for action. Paris, France: Author. Retrieved from Scholar
  29. Kamberelis, G., & Dimitriadis, G. (2013). Focus groups: From structured interviews to collective conversations. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  30. Kelly, K., & Grant, L. (2012). Penalties and premiums: The impact of gender, marriage, and parenthood on faculty salaries in science, engineering and mathematics (SEM) and non-SEM fields. Social Studies of Science, 42(6), 869–896.Google Scholar
  31. Lipton, B. (2015). A new ‘ERA’ of women and leadership: The gendered impact of quality assurance in Australian higher education. Australian Universities Review, 57(2), 60–70.Google Scholar
  32. Liu, N. C., & Cheng, Y. (2005). The academic ranking of world universities. Higher Education in Europe, 30(2), 127–136.Google Scholar
  33. Marcus, J. (2007). Helping academics have families and tenure too. Change, 39(2), 27–32.Google Scholar
  34. Marginson, S. (2007). To rank or be ranked: The impact of global rankings in higher education. Journal of Studies in International Education, 11(3/4), 306–329.Google Scholar
  35. Marginson, S. (2014). University rankings and social science. European Journal of Education, 49(1), 45–59.Google Scholar
  36. Martin, B. (2011). ERA: Adverse consequences. Australian Universities’ Review, 53(2), 99–102.Google Scholar
  37. Misra, J., Lundquist, J. H., Holmes, E., & Agiomavritis, S. (2011). The ivory ceiling of service work. Academe, 97(1), 22–26.Google Scholar
  38. Patton, M. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  39. Pyke, J. (2013). Women, choice and promotion or why women are still a minority in the professoriate. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 35(4), 444–454. Scholar
  40. Sabharwal, M., & Corley, E. A. (2009). Faculty job satisfaction across gender and discipline. The Social Science Journal, 46(3), 539–556.Google Scholar
  41. Savigny, H. (2014). Women, know your limits: Cultural sexism in academia. Gender and Education, 26(7), 794–809. Scholar
  42. Smith, J. W., & Calasanti, T. (2005). The influences of gender, race and ethnicity on workplace experiences of institutional and social isolation: An exploratory study of university faculty. Sociological Spectrum, 25(3), 307–334.Google Scholar
  43. Sussman, D., & Yssaad, L. (2005). The rising profile of women academics. Perspectives, 6(February), 6–19.Google Scholar
  44. Symonds, M. (2007). Quantity, quality and equality. New Scientist, 194(2611), 48–49.Google Scholar
  45. Tessens, L., White, K., & Web, C. (2011). Senior women in higher education institutions: Perceived development needs and support. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 33(6), 653–665. Scholar
  46. Thornton, M. (2013). The mirage of merit: Reconstituting the ‘ideal academic’. Australian Feminist Studies, 28(76), 127–143. Scholar
  47. van den Brink, M., & Benschop, Y. (2012). Slaying the seven-headed dragon: The quest for gender change in academia. Gender, Work and Organization, 19(1), 71–92. Scholar
  48. Ward, B. (2000). The female professor: A rare Australian species – The who and how. Paper presented to the 2nd European conference on gender equality in higher education, Zurich.Google Scholar
  49. Ward, B. (2003). The female professor: A rare Australian species – The who and how (PhD thesis). Murdoch University, Perth, Australia.Google Scholar
  50. Ward, K., & Wolf-Wendel, L. E. (2004). Academic motherhood: Managing complex roles in research universities. Review of Higher Education, 27(2), 233–257.Google Scholar
  51. White, K., Riordan, S., Ozkanli, O., & Neale, J. (2010). Cross-cultural perspectives of gender and management in universities. South African Journal of Higher Education, 24(4), 646–660.Google Scholar
  52. Wilson, J., Marks, G., Noone, L., & Hamilton-Mackenzie, J. (2010). Retaining a foothold on the slippery paths of academia: University women, indirect discrimination, and the academic marketplace. Gender and Education, 22(5), 535–545.Google Scholar
  53. Zinovyeva, N., & Bagues, M. (2015). The role of connections in academic promotions. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 7(2), 264–292.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carmel Diezmann
    • 1
  • Susan Grieshaber
    • 2
  1. 1.Queensland University of TechnologyKelvin GroveAustralia
  2. 2.La Trobe UniversityBundooraAustralia

Personalised recommendations