• Haowen Yan


Geometric objects on maps are representations of real phenomena in the geographical space. A single phenomenon may have multiple representations reflecting its different perspectives at the same or different scales on maps. Usually, an object or a group of objects in the geographic space has two types of “multiple representations” on maps. The former is that the object or the group of objects is expressed by different cartographers using different symbols at the same scale on maps, i.e. multi-cartographers’ representations or horizontal representation. The latter is that the object or the group of objects is observed at different distances and therefore expressed at different scales on maps, i.e. multi-scale representations or perpendicular representations.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Haowen Yan
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of GeomaticsLanzhou Jiaotong UniversityLanzhouChina

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