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iPS Cell Technology for Dissecting Cancer Epigenetics

  • Hirofumi Shibata
  • Yasuhiro YamadaEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Current Human Cell Research and Applications book series (CHCRA)

Abstract

A dynamic reorganization of epigenetic regulation takes place during cellular reprogramming. Given that reprogramming does not require changes in the underlying genome information, reprogramming technology can be used to actively modify the epigenetic regulation and thus is useful for studying the genome-epigenome relationship. Cancer cells harbor both genetic and epigenetic alterations. Although the causal role of genetic aberrations on cancer development has been well characterized by reverse genetics in vivo, the impact of epigenetic abnormalities remains to be fully understood, especially in vivo. Recent genome-wide sequencing studies have identified frequent mutations at epigenetic modifier genes, thus indicating that epigenetic alterations in cancer could be the consequence of genetic mutations. However, recent studies that utilized reprogramming technology for cancer research have demonstrated cellular context-associated epigenetic regulation that is independent of genetic mutations and plays a critical role on both the development and maintenance of cancer cells. In this review, we propose that reprogramming technology could be a powerful tool for dissecting the role of epigenetic regulation in cancer biology.

Keywords

Cancer Reprogramming technology Epigenetics DNA methylation In vivo reprogramming 

Abbreviations

AML

Acute myeloid leukemia

DMRs

Differentially methylated regions

ESCs

Embryonic stem cells

GBM

Glioblastoma

iPCCs

Induced pluripotent cancer cells

iPSCs

Induced pluripotent stem cells

LOH

Loss of heterogeneity

NT-ESCs

Nuclear transferred embryonic stem cells

PDAC

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

PRC2

Polycomb repressive complex 2

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

RTCs

Reprogrammed tumor cells

SAM

S-adenosylmethyonine

SCNT

Somatic cell nuclear transfer

TPCs

Tumor-propagating cells

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Life Science Frontiers, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application (CiRA)Kyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Otolaryngology, Gifu University Graduate School of MedicineGifu UniversityGifuJapan
  3. 3.Division of Stem Cell Pathology, Center for Experimental Medicine and Systems Biology, Institute of Medical ScienceUniversity of TokyoTokyoJapan

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