Cadmium Exposure and Its Effects on the Health Status of Rice Farmers in Akita Prefecture
Many areas polluted by cadmium (Cd) from mines and smelters exist in Akita Prefecture, and a large number of rice farmers in these areas have been exposed to high levels of Cd through the consumption of home-harvested rice. Rice farmers with Cd nephropathy, particularly elderly women, have been identified through health examinations performed in previous and recent studies. Although recent exposure to Cd among farmers in Cd-polluted areas has been decreasing due to countermeasures, the continuous monitoring of their health status and health care for patients with Cd nephropathy are necessary because of the long biological half-life of Cd. Intensive health examinations for inhabitants of these areas and hospital-based examinations for patients with renal dysfunction are currently being performed in Cd-polluted areas.
KeywordsCadmium Nephropathy Akita Farmer Rice Health examination Mine Smelter
- 7.DucPhuc H, Kido T, Dung Manh H, Thai Anh L, Phuong Oanh NT, Okamoto R, Ichimori A, Nogawa K, Suwazono Y, Nakagawa H. A 28-year observational study of urinary cadmium and β2-microglobulin concentrations in inhabitants in cadmium-polluted areas in Japan. J Appl Toxicol. 2016;36:1622–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.Akita prefecture underground resources development promotion association, Foundation of Akita mining industry association. Akita-ken Kohzanshi (in Japanese), or “Historical records of mines in Akita prefecture”; 2005.Google Scholar
- 10.Kamiyama S. Health examinations for inhabitants in cadmium-polluted areas in Akita prefecture (in the years of 1972-1973). In: Kankyo Hoken Report No. 36. Tokyo: Japanese Association of Public Health; 1976. p. 124–5. (in Japanese).Google Scholar
- 13.Haga Y, Kurihara T,Yamawaki T, Kojima S. Research report on environmental health studies of heavy metal pollution: No. 3, In Report of The Akita Pref. Institute of Public Health No. 19, Akita; 1975, p. 69–75 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
- 14.Haga Y, Kobayashi T,Miura H, Kato A. Research report on environmental health studies of heavy metal pollution: No. 5, In Report of The Akita Pref. Institute of Public Health No. 21, Akita; 1977, p. 101–109 (in Japanese).Google Scholar