Constructing a Supportive Environment for Student Learning and Teacher Development

  • Bick-har LAMEmail author


This chapter provides the conclusion to the book. It presents the key concepts and investigation results explored in Chaps.  2 6, followed by the key recommendations, a statement of the contribution of the book and future research directions and limitation. The chapter begins with a discussion of the philosophical beliefs encountered in the classical literature, acknowledging social support as a positive virtue that can help one enjoy a well-lived life. It further discusses the decline of social network systems, and the social values that continue to undermine the healthy development of youngsters in our twenty-first century, knowledge-based society. The rising trend of poor mental health worldwide is outlined, which supplies the background to suggest a renewed interest of social support in education. A synthesised report of the key content of the book is presented. It begins with the description of various social support assumptions and their functions, and the research issues related to social support. It further describes teachers’ social support and other social support resources in the classroom as reviewed in the book. Based on the review of social support across the fields of health psychology and education, a meta-theory is derived suggesting that social bonds, relationships and a supportive environment are crucial factors to support learning in schools. The results of studies on expert teachers’ social support behaviour are reported. Social support is realised as an important and crucial trait that enhances teacher’s teaching expertise, and the triad of teaching expertise is recommended as a potential topic for further investigation regarding teaching expertise. The results of studies of social support givers in the role of teacher are discussed. It suggests that social support giving is positively associated with teachers’ self-efficacy, and that teachers’ self-efficacy can drive their career advancement and overcome the pressure teachers may experience in teaching. The results suggest that ‘love for students’ is a trait of good teachers, and social support as the behaviour driven by the love for students helps teachers develop teaching expertise, and also leads to teachers’ better career development. Recommendations derived from the book are then discussed. They suggest the core values for establishing a supportive social environment to support student learning, and proposes directions for teacher training and professional development, and ways to enhance teacher-efficacy in the organisational context. On the basis of its content, this chapter discusses the contributions the book makes to the academic community, makes suggestions for further investigation and discusses the book’s limitations.


  1. Adams, R. (2018). Why teachers in England are suffering from so much stress. The Guardian. Retrieved from
  2. Aleven, V. A., & Koedinger, K. R. (2002). An effective metacognitive strategy: Learning by doing and explaining with a computer-based Cognitive Tutor. Cognitive Science, 26(2), 147–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ambrose, M. L. (2002). Contemporary justice research: A new look at familiar questions. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 89(1), 803–812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ambrose, S. A., Bridges, M. W., DiPietro, M., Lovett, M. C., & Norman, M. K. (2010). How learning works: Seven research-based principles for smart teaching. USA: Wiley.Google Scholar
  5. Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2002). Human aggression. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 27–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson, L. W., Krathwohl, D. R., Airasian, P. W., Cruikshank, K. A., Mayer, R. E., Pintrich, P. R., … & Wittrock, M. C. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives, abridged edition. White Plains, NY: Longman.Google Scholar
  7. Arnett, J. J. (2002). The psychology of globalization. American Psychologist, 57(10), 774–783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arun, P., & Chavan, B. (2009). Stress and suicidal ideas in adolescent students in Chandigarh. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences, 63(7), 281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Asad, E. M. M., & Hassan, R. B. (2013). The characteristics of an ideal technical teacher in this modern Era. International Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research, 1(1), 1–6.Google Scholar
  10. Azevedo, R. (2005). Using hypermedia as a metacognitive tool for enhancing student learning? The role of self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologist, 40(4), 199–209.Google Scholar
  11. Ball, S. J. (2003). The teacher’s soul and the terrors of performativity. Journal of Education Policy, 18(2), 215–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Barbara, L. M. (2004). The learner-centered psychological principles: A framework for balancing academic achievement and social-emotional learning outcomes. In E. Z. Joseph, R. W. Roger, C. W. Margaret, & J. W. Herbert (Eds.), Building academic success on social and emotional learning: What does the research say? (pp. 23–39). New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  13. Barrera, M. (1986). Distinctions between social support concepts, measures, and models. American Journal of Community Psychology, 14(4), 413–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bauer, M. A., Wilkie, J. E., Kim, J. K., & Bodenhausen, G. V. (2012). Cuing consumerism: Situational materialism undermines personal and social well-being. Psychological Science, 23(5), 517–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Benight, C. C., & Bandura, A. (2004). Social cognitive theory of posttraumatic recovery: The role of perceived self-efficacy. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 42(10), 1129–1148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Betoret, F. D. (2006). Stressors, self-efficacy, coping resources, and burnout among secondary school teachers in Spain. Educational Psychology, 26(4), 519–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Blackmore, J. (2004). Leading as emotional management work in high risk times: The counterintuitive impulses of performativity and passion. School Leadership & Management, 24(4), 439–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base: Parent–child attachment and healthy human development. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  19. Boxall, M. (2002). Nurture groups in school: Principles & practice. Sage.Google Scholar
  20. Brannon, L. (2011). Gender: Psychological Perspectives (6th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  21. Bray, M. (2017). Benefits and tensions of shadow education: Comparative perspectives on the roles and impact of private supplementary tutoring in the lives of Hong Kong students. Journal of International and Comparative Education, JICE, 18–30.Google Scholar
  22. Brutus, S., & Donia, M. B. (2010). Improving the effectiveness of students in groups with a centralized peer evaluation system. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 9(4), 652–662.Google Scholar
  23. Caporeal, L. R. (1997). The evolution of truly social cognition: The core configuration model. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 1(4), 276–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Caprara, G. V., & Steca, P. (2005). Self–efficacy beliefs as determinants of prosocial behavior conducive to life satisfaction across ages. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24(2), 191–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Carlson, J., Watts, R., & Maniacci, M. (2006). Adlerian therapy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cheung, E. & Chiu, P. (2016, March 12). Students at breaking point: Hong Kong announces emergency measures after 22 suicides since the start of the academic year. The South China Morning Post. Retrieved from
  27. Choi, P. L., & Tang, S. Y. F. (2009). Teacher commitment trends: Cases of Hong Kong teachers from 1997 to 2007. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(5), 767–777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chory-Assad, R. M. (2002). Classroom justice: Perceptions of fairness as a predictor of student motivation, learning, and aggression. Communication Quarterly, 50(1), 58–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Coan, J. A. (2008). Toward a neuroscience of attachment. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (2nd ed., pp. 241–265). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  30. Cohen, D. B. (2017). Managing change—before it drives you out of teaching. Educational Leadership: Gearing up for Change, 74, 34–38. Retrieved from
  31. Curriculum Development Council (2014). Basic Education Curriculum Guide—To Sustain, Deepen and Focus on Learning to Learn (Primary 1—6). Retrieved from
  32. Day, C., & Gu, Q. (2007). Variations in the conditions for teachers’ professional learning and development: Sustaining commitment and effectiveness over a career. Oxford Review of Education, 33(4), 423–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Day, C., & Gu, Q. (2009). Veteran teachers: Commitment, resilience and quality retention. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 15(4), 441–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. de Grood, J. A., & Wallace, J. E. (2011). In sickness and in health: An exploration of spousal support and occupational similarity. Work & Stress, 25(3), 272–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Deci, E. L., Eghrari, H., Patrick, B. C., & Leone, D. R. (1994). Facilitating internalization: The self-determination theory perspective. Journal of Personality, 62(1), 119–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Self-determination theory: A macrotheory of human motivation, development, and health. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 49(3), 182–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Demaray, M. K., & Malecki, C. K. (2003). Perceptions of the frequency and importance of social support by students classified as victims, bullies, and bully/victims in an urban middle school. School Psychology Review, 32(3), 471–490.Google Scholar
  38. Department for Education and Skills. (2005). Departmental Report 2005. Retrieved from
  39. Djigic, G., & Stojiljkovic, S. (2011). Classroom management styles, classroom climate and school achievement. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 29, 819–828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Durkheim, E. (2013). Durkheim: The rules of sociological method: And selected texts on sociology and its method. UK: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  41. Education Commission. (2000). Review of education system reform proposals. Retrieved from
  42. Fernet, C., Senécal, C., Guay, F., Marsh, H., & Dowson, M. (2008). The work tasks motivation scale for teachers (WTMST). Journal of Career Assessment, 16(2), 256–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Fowers, B. J. (2012). Placing virtue and the human good in psychology. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, 32(1), 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Frasure-Smith, N., Lespérance, F., Gravel, G., Masson, A., Juneau, M., Talajic, M., et al. (2000). Social support, depression, and mortality during the first year after myocardial infarction. Circulation, 101(16), 1919–1924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fredrickson, B. L. (1998). What good are positive emotions? Review of General Psychology, 2, 300–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Fredrickson, B. L. (2004). The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 359(1449), 1367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fredrickson, B. L., & Branigan, C. (2001). Positive emotions. In T. J. Mayne & G. A. Bonnano (Eds.), Emotion: Current issues and future directions (pp. 123–151). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  48. Furrer, C., & Skinner, E. (2003). Sense of relatedness as a factor in children’s academic engagement and performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(1), 148–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Furrow, J. L., King, P. E., & White, K. (2004). Religion and positive youth development: Identity, meaning, and prosocial concerns. Applied Developmental Science, 8(1), 17–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Galea, S., Ahern, J., Resnick, H., Kilpatrick, D., Bucuvalas, M., Gold, J., et al. (2002). Psychological sequelae of the September 11 terrorist attacks in New York City. New England Journal of Medicine, 346, 982–987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gillies, R. M. (2014). Cooperative learning: Developments in research. International Journal of Educational Psychology, 3(2), 125–140.Google Scholar
  52. Gliatto, M. F., & Rai, A. K. (1999). Evaluation and treatment of patients with suicidal ideation. American Family Physician, 59(6), 1500–1506.Google Scholar
  53. Goldstein, H. (2013). Circle of Friends. In Encyclopedia of Autism Spectrum Disorders (pp. 641–645). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gottfredson, M. R., & Hirschi, T. (1990). A general theory of crime. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Graham, A., & Phelps, R. (2003). ‘Being a teacher’: Developing teacher identity and enhancing practice through metacognitive and reflective learning processes. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 27(2), 2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hargreaves, A. (1994). Changing teachers, changing times: Teachers’ work and culture in the postmodern age. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  57. Hargreaves, A. (2000). Mixed emotions: Teachers’ perceptions of their interactions with students. Teaching and Teacher Education, 16(8), 811–826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Haslam, S. A., Reicher, S. D., & Levine, M. (2012). When other people are heaven, when other people are hell: How social identity determines the nature and impact of social support. In J. Jetten, C. Haslam, & S. A., Haslam (Eds.), The social cure: Identity, health and well-being (pp. 157–174). London, New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  59. Hattie, J. (1999, August 2). Influences on student learning. Inaugural Lecture: Professor of Education, University of Auckland.Google Scholar
  60. Hattie, J. (2003, October). Teachers make a difference: What is the research evidence? Paper presented at the Australian Council for Educational Research Annual Conference on Building Teacher Quality, Melbourne.Google Scholar
  61. Hegarty, S. (2000). Teaching as a knowledge-based activity. Oxford Review of Education, 26(3–4), 451–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Hong Kong Institute of Asia-Pacific Studies (2016). Survey findings on views on “winning at the starting line” in Hong Kong. Retrieved from
  63. Huber, M., Knottnerus, J. A., Green, L., van der Horst, H., Jadad, A. R., Kromhout, D., … & Schnabel, P. (2011). How should we define health?. BMJ: British Medical Journal (Online), 343.
  64. Hursthouse, R. (2001). On Virtue Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Isenbarger, L., & Zembylas, M. (2006). The emotional labour of caring in teaching. Teaching and Teacher Education, 22(1), 120–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Jang, H., Reeve, J., & Deci, E. L. (2010). Engaging students in learning activities: It is not autonomy support or structure but autonomy support and structure. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(3), 588–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Jennings, P. A., & Greenberg, M. T. (2009). The prosocial classroom: Teacher social and emotional competence in relation to student and classroom outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 79(1), 491–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Smith, K. A. (1991). Cooperative Learning: Increasing College Faculty Instructional Productivity. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No.4. School of Education and Human Development, The. Washington, DC: George Washington University.Google Scholar
  69. Jørgensen, I. S., & Nafstad, H. E. (2005). Positive psychology: Historical, philosophical, and epistemological perspectives. Tidsskr Nor Psykol, 42(10), 885–896.Google Scholar
  70. Kasser, T., & Ahuvia, A. (2002). Materialistic values and well-being in business students. European Journal of Social Psychology, 32(1), 137–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kasser, T., & Ryan, R. M. (2001). Be careful what you wish for: Optimal functioning and the relative attainment of intrinsic and extrinsic goals. In P. Schmuck, Peter & K. M. Sheldon (Eds.), Life goals and well-being: Towards a positive psychology of human striving (pp. 116–131). Ashland, OH, US: Hogrefe & Huber Publishers.Google Scholar
  72. Kiemer, K., Gröschner, A., Pehmer, A. K., & Seidel, T. (2015). Effects of a classroom discourse intervention on teachers’ practice and students’ motivation to learn mathematics and science. Learning and Instruction, 35, 94–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. King, R. B., & Datu, J. A. D. (2017). Materialism does not pay: Materialistic students have lower motivation, engagement, and achievement. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 49, 289–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. King, M. B., & Newmann, F. M. (2000). Will teacher learning advance school goals? Phi Delta Kappan, 81(8), 576.Google Scholar
  75. Klem, A. M., & Connell, J. P. (2004). Relationships matter: Linking teacher support to student engagement and achievement. Journal of School Health, 74(7), 262–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kontos, S., & Wilcox-Herzog, A. (1997). Teachers’ interactions with children: Why are they so important? Research in Review. Young Children, 52(2), 4–12.Google Scholar
  77. Lam, B. H. (2011a). Constructivist Perspectives on Learning. In S. N. Pillipson & B. H. Lam (Eds.), Learning and teaching in the Chinese classroom—responding to individual needs. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.Google Scholar
  78. Lam, B. H. (2011b). A Reflective account of a pre-service teacher’s effort to implement progressive curriculum in field practice Schools. Studies Education, 8(1), 22–39.Google Scholar
  79. Lam, B. H. (2015). There is no fear in love—the giving of social support to students enhances teachers’ career development. In R. Osbourne (Ed.), Job satisfaction: Determinants, workplace implications and impacts on psychological well-being (pp. 73–96). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.Google Scholar
  80. Lam, B. H., & Yan, H. F. (2011). Beginning teachers’ job satisfaction: The impact of school-based factors. Teacher Development, 15(3), 333–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Larson, R. W. (2002). Globalization, societal change, and new technologies: What they mean for the future of adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 12(1), 1–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Latham, G. P., & Pinder, C. C. (2005). Work motivation theory and research at the dawn of the twenty-first century. Annual Review of Psychology, 56(1), 485–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Lee, T. H. C. (2000). Education in traditional China: A history. Boston: Brill.Google Scholar
  84. Lewis, M. (1993). Self-conscious emotions: Embarrassment, pride, shame, and guilt. In M. Lewis & J. M. Haviland (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (pp. 563–573). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  85. Lin, N. (2017). Building a network theory of social capital. In Social capital (pp. 3–28). UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  86. Lortie, D. (1975). School teacher: A sociological analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  87. Martin, A. J., Collie, R. J., & Frydenberg, E. (2017). Social and emotional learning: Lessons learned and opportunities going forward. In E. Frydenbert, A., Martin, & R. Collie (Eds.), Social and Emotional Learning in Australia and the Asia-Pacific (pp. 459–471). Singapore: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Matud, M. P. (2004). Gender differences in stress and coping styles. Personality and Individual Differences, 37(7), 1401–1415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. McKenzie, K., Whitley, R., & Weich, S. (2002). Social capital and mental health. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 181(4), 280–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Morrison, B. (2002). Bullying and victimisation in schools: A restorative justice approach. Australian Institute of Criminology: trends & issues in crime and criminal justice, 219. Retrieved from
  91. Mosley, J. (2005). Circle time for young children. UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  92. Nias, J. (1996). Thinking about feeling: The emotions in teaching. Cambridge Journal of Education, 26(3), 293–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Nias, J., Southworth, G., & Yeomans, R. (1989). Staff relationships in the primary school: A study of organizational cultures. Mansell.Google Scholar
  94. Noddings, N. (2003). Happiness and education. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Noddings, N. (2013). Caring: A relational approach to ethics and moral education. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  96. O’ Brennan, L., Pas, E., & Bradshaw, C. (2017). Multilevel examination of burnout among high school staff: Importance of staff and school factors. School Psychology Review, 46(2), 165–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Okasha, A. (2005). Globalization and mental health: A WPA perspective. World Psychiatry, 4(1), 1–2.Google Scholar
  98. Omoto, A. M., Malsch, A. M., & Barraza, J. A. (2009). Compassionate acts: Motivations for and correlates of volunteerism among older adults. In B. Fehr, S., Sprecher, & L., G., Underwood (Eds.), The science of compassionate love: Theory, research, and applications (pp. 257–282). Singapore: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.Google Scholar
  99. Patrick, H., & Pintrich, P. R. (2001). Conceptual change in teachers’ intuitive conceptions of learning, motivation, and instruction: The role of motivational and epistemological beliefs. In B. Torff & R. J., Sternberg (Eds.), Understanding and teaching the intuitive mind: Student and teacher learning (pp. 117–143). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.Google Scholar
  100. Piliavin, J. A., & Siegl, E. (2007). Health benefits of volunteering in the Wisconsin longitudinal study. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 48(4), 450–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Rebora, A. (2017). Perspectives/ Working with change in schools. Educational Leadership: Gearing up for Change, 74, 5. Retrieved from
  102. Reddy, R., Rhodes, J. E., & Mulhall, P. (2003). The influence of teacher support on student adjustment in the middle school years: A latent growth curve study. Development and Psychopathology, 15(1), 119–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Reeve, J. (2009). Why teachers adopt a controlling motivating style toward students and how they can become more autonomy supportive. Educational Psychologist, 44(3), 159–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Reeve, J., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2004). Self-determination theory: A dialectical framework for understanding socio-cultural influences on student motivation. Big theories revisited, 4, 31–60.Google Scholar
  105. Russell, S. L. (2012). Individual-and classroom-level social support and classroom behavior in middle school. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.Google Scholar
  106. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annual Review of Psychology, 52(1), 141–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Sachs, J. (2003). The activist teaching profession. Buckingham: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  109. Sacks, A. (2017). Empowering teaches to respond to change. Educational Leadership: Gearing up for Change, 74, 40–45. Retrieved from
  110. Schwartz, C. E., & Sendor, R. M. (1999). Helping others helps oneself: response shift effects in peer support. Social Science & Medicine, 48(11), 1563–1575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Scott, C., Stone, B., & Dinham, S. (2001). International patterns of teacher discontent. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 9(28), 1–16.Google Scholar
  112. Seligman, M. E. (2002). Positive psychology, positive prevention, and positive therapy. Handbook of Positive Psychology, 2, 3–12.Google Scholar
  113. Sharma, S., & Sharma, M. (2010). Globalization, threatened identities, coping and well-being. Psychological Studies, 55(4), 313–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Slavin, R. E. (2014). Cooperative Learning and Academic Achievement: Why Does Groupwork Work? Anales de Psicología/Annals of Psychology, 30(3), 785–791.Google Scholar
  115. Smith, M. K. (2001). Donald Schon: learning, reflection and change. Retrieved from
  116. Snyder, T. D., Tan, A. G., and Hoffman, C. M. (2006). Digest of Education Statistics 2005 (NCES 2006–030). U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  117. Sriprakash, A. (2013). New learner subjects? Reforming the rural child for a modern India. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 34(3), 325–337.Google Scholar
  118. Suldo, S. M., Shaffer, E. J., & Riley, K. N. (2008). A social-cognitive-behavioral model of academic predictors of adolescents’ life satisfaction. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(1), 56–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Taylor, S. E. (2007). Social support. In H. S. Friedman & R. C. Silver (Eds.), Foundations of health psychology (pp. 145–171). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  120. Taylor, S. E. (2011). Social support: A review. In S. F., Howard (Ed.), The handbook of health psychology (pp. 189–214). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  121. Thiers, N. (2017) Making progress possible: A conversation with Michael Fullan. Educational Leadership: Gearing up for Change, 74, 8–14. Retrieved from
  122. Thoits, P. A. (2011). Mechanisms linking social ties and support to physical and mental health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 52(2), 145–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Trivers, R. L. (1971). The evolution of reciprocal altruism. The Quarterly Review of Biology, 46(1), 35–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Tsang, K. K. (2011). Emotional labor of teaching. Educational Research, 2(8), 1312–1316.Google Scholar
  125. Turner, R. B. (2013). Expert teaching: Knowledge and pedagogy to lead the profession. UK: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Twenge, J. M., & Kasser, T. (2013). Generational changes in materialism and work centrality, 1976–2007: Associations with temporal changes in societal insecurity and materialistic role modeling. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39(7), 883–897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. UNESCO (2008). First collection of good practices for quality education. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved at:
  128. Ursano, A. M., Kartheiser, P. H., & Ursano, R. J. (2007). The teaching alliance: A perspective on the good teacher and effective learning. Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes, 70(3), 187–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Vansteenkiste, M., Niemiec, C. P., & Soenens, B. (2010). The development of the five mini-theories of self-determination theory: An historical overview, emerging trends, and future directions. In T. C., Urdan & S. A., Karabenick (Eds.), The decade ahead: Theoretical perspectives on motivation and achievement (pp. 105–165). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  130. Vavrus, M. (2008). Culturally responsive teaching. 21st Century Education: A Reference Handbook, 2, 49–57. Retrieved from
  131. Verschueren, K., Doumen, S., & Buyse, E. (2012). Relationships with mother, teacher, and peers: Unique and joint effects on young children’s self-concept. Attachment & Human Development, 14(3), 233–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Vohs, K. D., Mead, N. L., & Goode, M. R. (2006). The psychological consequences of money. Science, 314(5802), 1154–1156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Vygotsky, L. (1978). Interaction between learning and development. Readings on the Development of Children, 23(3), 34–41. Google Scholar
  134. Walberg, H. J., & Paik, S. J. (2000). Effective Educational Practices. Educational Practices Series–3. Brussels: International Academy of Education.Google Scholar
  135. Wang, Y. (2007). Analysis of teacher attrition. Chinese Education & Society, 40(5), 6–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Wang, M. T., & Eccles, J. S. (2012). Social support matters: Longitudinal effects of social support on three dimensions of school engagement from middle to high school. Child Development, 83(3), 877–895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Waterman, A. S. (1993). Two conceptions of happiness: Contrasts of personal expressiveness (eudaimonia) and hedonic enjoyment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64(4), 678–691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Wentzel, K. R., Battle, A., Russell, S. L., & Looney, L. B. (2010). Social supports from teachers and peers as predictors of academic and social motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 35(3), 193–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. World Health Organization (2001 October). Mental disorders affect one in four people (World health report). Retrieved from
  140. World Health Organization (2014). Preventing suicide: A global imperative. Retrieved from
  141. World Health Organization (2017 April). Mental disorders fact sheet. Retrieved from
  142. Yeung, A. S., & Liu, W. P. (2007). Workload and psychological wellbeing of Hong Kong teachers. Fremantle: Paper presented at the the Australian Association for Research in Education.Google Scholar
  143. Yin, H. B., & Lee, J. C. K. (2012). Be passionate, but be rational as well: Emotional rules for Chinese teachers’ work. Teaching and Teacher Education, 28(1), 56–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Zembylas, M. (2003). Emotions and teacher identity: A poststructural perspective. Teachers and Teaching, 9(3), 213–238.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Education University of Hong KongHong KongHong Kong

Personalised recommendations