Social Support, Student Outcomes and Teaching Strategies

  • Bick-har Lam


Social support is a topic of study related to the link between psychological processes and health. Social support can be explained as the type of communication between support recipients and providers that reduces uncertainties, and enables relationships and functions that enhance support recipients’ perception of personal control in their life experience (Adelman & Albrecht in Communicating social support. Sage Publications, 1987). Teaching is an interactional process between learners and teachers in the school environment. Teachers, as more knowledgeable others, give support to students in order to master a certain amount of content knowledge of a discipline, which demonstrates their role as a nurturer (Lam in There is no fear in love: The giving of social support to students enhances teachers’ career development, 2017). In the classroom, student peers’ scaffoldings and social interaction involve learners in a community for friendship and academic learning, and the school as a whole creates an environment to foster learners’ social and academic development. Learning in school largely relies on different sources of social support. This chapter investigates the potential of social support in teaching and learning contexts. It attempts to explore teachers’ supportive behaviours and other support sources in the classroom environment and the corresponding outcomes on student learning, to draw implications from theory and practice in teaching. The current chapter seeks to accomplish the following:
  • Identify the theoretical reasons behind the link between social support and education, especially related to teaching and learning in the classroom;

  • Explore the support documented in the literature mainly related to teacher social support, and generally about other support sources;

  • Related to the above, what impact social support behaviours and practice from teachers and other support sources could have on students in terms of educational outcomes;

  • Identify exemplary teaching strategies that utilise social support;

  • Discuss implications from the above and further research directions.


  1. Aber, J. L., Jones, S. M., Brown, J. L., Chaudry, N., & Samples, F. (1998). Resolving conflict creatively: Evaluating the developmental effects of a school-based violence prevention program in neighborhood and classroom context. Development and Psychopathology, 10(2), 187–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abrams, L. M., Pedulla, J. J., & Madaus, G. F. (2003). Views from the classroom: Teachers’ opinions of statewide testing programs. Theory into Practice, 42(1), 18–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adelman, M. B., & Albrecht, T. L. (1987). Communicating social support. Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  4. Ainsworth, M. D. S. (1979). Infant–mother attachment. American Psychologist, 34(10), 932–937.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  6. Ames, C. (1992). Classrooms: Goals, structures, and student motivation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(3), 261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anderson, L. W., Krathwohl, D. R., Airasian, P. W., Cruikshank, K. A., Mayer, R. E., Pintrich, P. R., …, & Wittrock, M. C. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives, abridged edition. White Plains, NY: Longman.Google Scholar
  8. Arun, P., & Chavan, B. (2009). Stress and suicidal ideas in adolescent students in Chandigarh. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences, 63(7), 281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ashby, F. G., & Isen, A. M. (1999). A neuropsychological theory of positive affect and its influence on cognition. Psychological Review, 106(3), 529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Au, W. (2007). High-stakes testing and curricular control: A qualitative metasynthesis. Educational Researcher, 36(5), 258–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Babad, E. (2009). The social psychology of the classroom. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Baldwin, M. W. (1992). Relational schemas and the processing of social information. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 461–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Banks, M., & Woolfson, L. (2008). RESEARCH SECTION: Why do students think they fail? The relationship between attributions and academic self-perceptions. British Journal of Special Education, 35(1), 49–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Barbara, L. M. (2004). The learner-centered psychological principles: A framework for balancing academic achievement and social-emotional learning outcomes. In E. Z. Joseph, R. W. Roger, C. W. Margaret, & J. W. Herbert (Eds.), Building academic success on social and emotional learning: What does the research say? (pp. 23–39). New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  15. Barber, B. K., & Olsen, J. A. (2004). Assessing the transitions to middle and high school. Journal of Adolescent Research, 19(1), 3–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Barrera, M., & Garrison-Jones, C. (1992). Family and peer social support as specific correlates of depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Clinical Psychology, 20(1), 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Barrett, W., & Randall, L. (2004). Investigating the circle of friends approach: Adaptations and implications for practice. Educational Psychology in Practice, 20(4), 353–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Beane, J. A. (1990). Affect in the curriculum: Toward democracy, dignity, and diversity. Columbia: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  19. Becker, B. E., & Luthar, S. S. (2002). Social-emotional factors affecting achievement outcomes among disadvantaged students: Closing the achievement gap. Educational Psychologist, 37(4), 197–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Benard, B. (1991). Fostering resiliency in kids: Protective factors in the family, school, and community (Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory). Portland, OR: Western Center for Drug-Free Schools and Communities.Google Scholar
  21. Binnie, L. M., & Allen, K. (2008). Whole school support for vulnerable children: The evaluation of a part-time nurture group. Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 13(3), 201–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Birch, S. H., & Ladd, G. W. (1998). Children’s interpersonal behaviors and the teacher-child relationship. Developmental Psychology, 34, 934–946.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (2009). Developing the theory of formative assessment. Educational assessment, evaluation and accountability (formerly: Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education), 21(1), 5–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Blair, C., & Raver, C. C. (2015). School readiness and self-regulation: A developmental psychobiological approach. Annual Review of Psychology, 66, 711–731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  26. Borich, G. D. (2004). Vital impressions: The KPM approach to children. KPM Institute.Google Scholar
  27. Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss. Separation: Anxiety and anger (Vol. 2). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  28. Bowlby, J. (1980). Attachment and loss: Vol. 3. Loss: Sadness and depression. New York: Basic books.Google Scholar
  29. Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment and loss: Retrospect and prospect. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 52(4), 664–678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base: Parent–child attachment and healthy human development. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  31. Bowles, S., & Gintis, H. (1976). Schooling in capitalist America (Vol. 57). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  32. Boxall, M. (2002). Nurture groups in school: Principles & practice. Sage.Google Scholar
  33. Bray, M. (2017). Hong Kong education in an international context: The impact of external forces. In Education and society in Hong Kong: toward one country and two systems (pp. 83–94). Routledge.Google Scholar
  34. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1977). Toward an experimental ecology of human development. American Psychologist, 32(7), 513–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1995). Developmental ecology through space and time: A future perspective.Google Scholar
  36. Bronfenbrenner, U. (2005). Making human beings human: Bioecological perspectives on human development. Sage.Google Scholar
  37. Brookhart, S. M. (1997). A theoretical framework for the role of classroom assessment in motivating student effort and achievement. Applied Measurement in Education, 10(2), 161–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Brophy, J. (1986). Teacher influences on student achievement. American Psychologist, 41(10), 1069.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Brophy, J. (1988). Educating teachers about managing classrooms and students. Teaching and Teacher Education, 4(1), 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Brown, G. T., Kennedy, K. J., Fok, P. K., Chan, J. K. S., & Yu, W. M. (2009). Assessment for student improvement: Understanding Hong Kong teachers’ conceptions and practices of assessment. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 16(3), 347–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Burnett, P. C., & Mandel, V. (2010). Praise and feedback in the primary classroom: Teachers’ and students’ perspectives. Australian Journal of Educational & Developmental Psychology, 10, 145–154.Google Scholar
  42. Buyse, E., Verschueren, K., Doumen, S., Van Damme, J., & Maes, F. (2008). Classroom problem behavior and teacher-child relationships in kindergarten: The moderating role of classroom climate. Journal of School Psychology, 46(4), 367–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Cabrera, A. F., Nora, A., Crissman, J. L., & Terenzini, P. T. (2002). Collaborative learning: Its impact on college students’ development and diversity. Journal of College Student Development, 43(1), 20–34.Google Scholar
  44. Cacioppo, J. T., & Patrick, W. (2008). Loneliness: Human nature and the need for social connection. New York: W. W.slavin Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  45. Cacioppo, J. T., Gardner, W. L., & Berntson, G. G. (1999). The affect system has parallel and integrative processing components: Form follows function. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 839–855.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Calabrese, R., Patterson, J., Liu, F., Goodvin, S., Hummel, C., & Nance, E. (2008). An appreciative inquiry into the circle of friends program: The benefits of social inclusion of students with disabilities. International Journal of Whole Schooling, 4(2), 20.Google Scholar
  47. Cameron, L., & Thorsborne, M. (2001). Restorative justice and school discipline: Mutually exclusive? Restorative Justice and Civil Society, 180, 194.Google Scholar
  48. Canney, C., & Byrne, A. (2006). Evaluating circle time as a support to social skills development—Reflections on a journey in school-based research. British Journal of Special Education, 33(1), 19–24. Scholar
  49. Carter, E. W., Cushing, L. S., Clark, N. M., & Kennedy, C. H. (2005). Effects of peer support interventions on students’ access to the general curriculum and social interactions. Research and Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 30(1), 15–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Cauley, K. M., & McMillan, J. H. (2010). Formative assessment techniques to support student motivation and achievement. The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 83(1), 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Cefai, C., Ferrario, E., Cavioni, V., Carter, A., & Grech, T. (2014). Circle time for social and emotional learning in primary school. Pastoral Care in Education, 32(2), 116–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Centers for Disease Control. (2013). Make a Difference at Your School. Chronic Disease. Paper 31. Retrieved from:
  53. Chapple, C. L. (2005). Self-control, peer relations, and delinquency. Justice Quarterly, 22(1), 89–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Cheng, R. W. Y., & Lam, S. F. (2007). Self-construal and social comparison effects. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 77(1), 197–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Cheng, W. Y., Lam, S. F., & Chan, C. Y. (2008). When high achievers and low achievers work in the same group: The roles of group heterogeneity and processes in project-based learning. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 78(2), 205–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Cheung, E., & Chiu, P. (2016, March 12). Students at breaking point: Hong Kong announces emergency measures after 22 suicides since the start of the academic year. The South China Morning Post. Retrieved from
  57. Cheung, E. (2015, August 31). Depression hits half of Hong Kong secondary pupils and a quarter have considered suicide, study finds. The South China Morning Post. Retrieved from
  58. Choi, J., Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. (2011). Relationships among cooperative learning experiences, social interdependence, children’s aggression, victimization, and prosocial behaviors. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 41(4), 976–1003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Christensen, L., & Karp, S. (Eds.). (2003). Rethinking school reform. Rethinking Schools.Google Scholar
  60. Church, M. A., Elliot, A. J., & Gable, S. L. (2001). Perceptions of classroom environment, achievement goals, and achievement outcomes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 43–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Close, W., & Solberg, S. (2008). Predicting achievement, distress, and retention among lower-income Latino youth. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 72(1), 31–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Coan, J. A. (2008). Toward a neuroscience of attachment. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (2nd ed., pp. 241–265). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  63. Cockrell, K. S., Caplow, J. A. H., & Donaldson, J. F. (2000). A context for learning: Collaborative groups in the problem-based learning environment. The Review of Higher Education, 23(3), 347–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Cohen, J. (2006). Social, emotional, ethical, and academic education: Creating a climate for learning, participation in democracy, and well-being. Harvard Educational Review, 76(2), 201–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Cohen, J., McCabe, L., Michelli, N. M., & Pickeral, T. (2009). School climate: Research, policy, practice, and teacher education. Teachers College Record, 111(1), 180–213.Google Scholar
  66. Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning. (2005). Safe and sound: An educational leader’s guide to evidence-based social and emotional learning programs—Illinois edition. Chicago: Author.Google Scholar
  67. Connell, J. P. (1990). Context, self, and action: A motivational analysis of self-system processes across the life-span. In D. Cicchetti & M. Beeghly (Eds.), The self in transition: From infancy to childhood (pp. 61–97). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  68. Connell, J. P., & Wellborn, J. G. (1991). Competence, autonomy, and relatedness: A motivational analysis of self-system processes. In M. R. Gunnar & L. A. Sroufe (Eds.), The Minnesota symposia on child psychology (Vol. 23, pp. 43–77)., Self-processes and development Hillsdale, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.Google Scholar
  69. Cook, K. S., & Rice, E. (2006). Social exchange theory. In J. Delamater (Ed.), Handbook of social psychology (pp. 53–76). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Cooper, P., & Tiknaz, Y. (2005). Progress and challenge in nurture groups: Evidence from three case studies. British Journal of Special Education, 32(4), 211–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Cooper, P., & Whitebread, D. (2007). The effectiveness of nurture groups on student progress: Evidence from a national research study. Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 12(3), 171–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Cooper, P., Arnold, R., & Boyd, E. (2001). Evaluation of nurture group provision in an English LEA (Unpublished research report edn). University of Leicester.Google Scholar
  73. Copeland-Mitchell, J., Denham, S. A., & DeMulder, E. K. (1997). Q-sort assessment of child—teacher attachment relationships and social competence in the preschool. Early Education and Development, 8, 27–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Cropanzano, R., & Mitchell, M. S. (2005). Social exchange theory: An interdisciplinary review. Journal of Management, 31(6), 874-900.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper Perennial.Google Scholar
  76. Curby, T. W., Brock, L. L., & Hamre, B. K. (2013). Teachers’ emotional support consistency predicts children’s achievement gains and social skills. Early Education & Development, 24(3), 292–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Cutrona, C. E., Russell, D. W., Brown, P. A., Clark, L. A., Hessling, R. M., & Gardner, K. A. (2005). Neighborhood context, personality, and stressful life events as predictors of depression among African American women. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114(1), 3–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Danielsen, A. G., Samdal, O., Hetland, J., & Wold, B. (2009). School-related social support and students’ perceived life satisfaction. The Journal of Educational Research, 102(4), 303–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Davidson, A. J., Gest, S. D., & Welsh, J. A. (2010). Relatedness with teachers and peers during early adolescence: An integrated variable-oriented and person-oriented approach. Journal of School Psychology, 48(6), 483–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Day, C. (2004). The passion of successful leadership. School Leadership & Management, 24(4), 425–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Self-determination theory: A macrotheory of human motivation, development, and health. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 49(3), 182–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Delen, E., Liew, J., & Willson, V. (2014). Effects of interactivity and instructional scaffolding on learning: Self-regulation in online video-based environments. Computers & Education, 78, 312–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Denham, S. (1998). Emotional development in young children. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  84. Eckstein, M., & Noah, H. (1993). Secondary school examinations. International perspectives on policies and practices. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Education, A., & Mean, W. D. I. (2013). Affective education and the affective domain: Implications for instructional-design theories and models. Instructional-Design Theories And Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory, 2(1992), 485.Google Scholar
  86. Ellsworth, P. C., & Smith, C. A. (1988). Shades of joy: Patterns of appraisal differentiating pleasant emotions. Cognition and Emotion, 2, 301–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Evans, M., & Boucher, A. R. (2015). Optimizing the power of choice: Supporting student autonomy to foster motivation and engagement in learning. Mind, Brain, and Education, 9(2), 87–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Felder, R. M., & Brent, R. (2007). Cooperative learning. In Active learning: Models from the analytical sciences, ACS Symposium Series (Vol. 970, pp. 34–53).Google Scholar
  89. Finn, J. D. (1989). Withdrawing from school. Review of Educational Research, 59(2), 117–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Finn, J. D., & Zimmer, K. S. (2012). Student engagement: What is it? Why does it matter? Handbook of research on student engagement (pp. 97–131). US: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Firth, R. (1967). Themes in economic anthropology: A general comment. Themes in Economic Anthropology, 6, 1–28.Google Scholar
  92. Fisher, J. D., Nadler, A., & Whitcher-Alagna, S. (1982). Recipient reactions to aid. Psychological Bulletin, 91(1), 27–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Ford, M. E. (1992). Motivating humans: Goals, emotions, and personal agency beliefs. California: Sage Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Frederickson, N., Warren, L., & Turner, J. (2005). “Circle of Friends”—An exploration of impact over time. Educational Psychology in Practice, 21(3), 197–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Fredricks, J., Blumenfeld, P., Friedel, J., & Paris, A. (2005). School engagement. In K. A. Moore & L. H. Lippman (Eds.), What do children need to flourish? (pp. 305–321). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Fredrickson, B. L. (1998). What good are positive emotions? Review of General Psychology, 2, 300–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Fredrickson, B. L. (2000). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3(1), 1a.Google Scholar
  98. Fredrickson, B. L. (2003). The value of positive emotions: The emerging science of positive psychology is coming to understand why it’s good to feel good. American Scientist, 91(4), 330–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Fredrickson, B. L. (2004). The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 359(1449), 1367–1377. Scholar
  100. Fredrickson, B. L., & Branigan, C. (2001). Positive emotions. In T. J. Mayne & G. A. Bonnano (Eds.), Emotion: Current issues and future directions (pp. 123–151). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  101. Frijda, N. H. (1988). The laws of emotion. American Psychologist, 43(5), 349–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Furrer, C., & Skinner, E. (2003). Sense of relatedness as a factor in children’s academic engagement and performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(1), 148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Gable, S. L., & Haidt, J. (2005). What (and why) is positive psychology? Review of General Psychology, 9(2), 103–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Gallimore, R., & Tharp, R. G. (1992). Teaching mind in society: Teaching, schooling, and literature discourse. In L. C. Moll (Ed.), Vygotsky and education: Instructional implications and applications of sociohistorical psychology (pp. 175–205). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  105. Gaskell, J. (2008). Learning from the women’s movement about educational change. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 29(4), 437–449.Google Scholar
  106. Gay, G. (2002). Preparing for culturally responsive teaching. Journal of Teacher Education, 53(2), 106–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Gilman, R., Huebner, E. S., & Laughlin, J. E. (2000). A first study of the Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale with adolescents. Social Indicators Research, 52(2), 135–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Gindis, B. (1996). Psychology applied to education: L. S. Vygotsky’s approach. NASP. Communique, 25(2), 12–13.Google Scholar
  109. Gleason, M. E., Iida, M., Bolger, N., & Shrout, P. E. (2003). Daily supportive equity in close relationships. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29(8), 1036–1045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Goldstein, H. (2013). Circle of friends. In Encyclopedia of autism spectrum disorders (pp. 641–645). Springer New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Goleman, D. P. (1995). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ for character, health and lifelong achievement.Google Scholar
  112. Goleman, D. (2007). Social intelligence. New York: Random house.Google Scholar
  113. Goodenow, C. (1993). Classroom belonging among early adolescent students: Relationships to motivation and achievement. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 13(1), 21–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Goroshit, M., & Hen, M. (2016). Teachers’ empathy: Can it be predicted by self-efficacy? Teachers and Teaching, 22(7), 805–818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Gregory, A., & Weinstein, R. S. (2004). Connection and regulation at home and in school: Predicting growth in achievement for adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 19(4), 405–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Gregory, A., Clawson, K., Davis, A., & Gerewitz, J. (2016). The promise of restorative practices to transform teacher-student relationships and achieve equity in school discipline. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 26(4), 325–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Grolnick, W. S., Gurland, S. T., DeCourcey, W., & Jacob, K. (2002). Antecedents and consequences of mothers’ autonomy support: An experimental investigation. Developmental Psychology, 38, 143–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Guerra, N., Modecki, K., & Cunningham, W. (2014). Social-emotional Skills Development across the Life Span: PRACTICE. Policy Research Working Paper, 7123.Google Scholar
  119. Haferkamp, N., & Krämer, N. C. (2011). Social comparison 2.0: Examining the effects of online profiles on social-networking sites. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14(5), 309–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Hamre, B. K., & Pianta, R. C. (2005). Can instructional and emotional support in the first-grade classroom make a difference for children at risk of school failure? Child Development, 76(5), 949–967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Hamre, B., & Pianta, R. C. (2001). Early teacher-child relationships and trajectory of school outcomes through eighth grade. Child Development, 72, 625–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Hargreaves, A. (1999). The psychic rewards (and annoyances) of teaching. In M. Hammersley (Ed.), Researching school experience: Ethnographic studies of teaching and learning (pp. 85–104). London & New York: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  123. Hargreaves, D. H. (2001). A capital theory of school effectiveness and improvement. British Educational Research Journal, 27(4), 487–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Harris, J. R. (1998). The nurture assumption: Why children turn out the way they do. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  125. Hawley, P. H., Little, T. D., & Pasupathi, M. (2002). Winning friends and influencing peers: Strategies of peer influence in late childhood. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 26(5), 466–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Heckman, J. J., & Kautz, T. (2012). Hard evidence on soft skills. Labour Economics, 19(4), 451–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Heinicke, C. M., & Westheimer, I. (1966). Brief separations. Oxford, England: International U. Press.Google Scholar
  128. Hendrickx, M. M., Mainhard, M. T., Boor-Klip, H. J., Cillessen, A. H., & Brekelmans, M. (2016). Social dynamics in the classroom: Teacher support and conflict and the peer ecology. Teaching and Teacher Education, 53, 30–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Henry, D., Guerra, N., Huesmann, R., Tolan, P., VanAcker, R., & Eron, L. (2000). Normative influences on aggression in urban elementary school classrooms. American Journal of Community Psychology, 28(1), 59–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Heritage, M. (2007). Formative assessment: What do teachers need to know and do? Phi Delta Kappan, 89(2), 140–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Himsl, R., & Lambert, E. (1993). Signs of learning in the affective domain. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 39(2), 257–73.Google Scholar
  132. Homans, G. C. (1961). Human behavior: Its elementary forms. New York: Harcourt Brace.Google Scholar
  133. Holmes, J. (2014). John Bowlby and attachment theory. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Hopkins, B. (2002). Restorative justice in schools. Support for Learning, 17(3), 144–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Hughes, C. H., & Ensor, R. A. (2009). How do families help or hinder the emergence of early executive function? In C. Lewis & J. I. M. Carpendale (Eds.), New directions in child and adolescent development: No. 123. Social interaction and the development of executive function (pp. 35–50). New York, NY: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Hughes, J. N. (2012). Teacher–student relationships and school adjustment: Progress and remaining challenges. Attachment & Human Development, 14(3), 319–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Hughes, J. N., & Kwok, O. M. (2007). Influence of student-teacher and parent-teacher relationships on lower achieving readers’ engagement and achievement in the primary grades. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(1), 39–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Hughes, J. N., Cavell, T. A., & Willson, V. (2001). Further support for the developmental significance of the quality of the teacher-student relationship. Journal of School Psychology, 39, 289–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Hughes, J. N., Luo, W., Kwok, O. M., & Loyd, L. K. (2008). Teacher-student support, effortful engagement, and achievement: A 3-year longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(1), 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Hughes, N. K., & Schlösser, A. (2014). The effectiveness of nurture groups: a systematic review. Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties, 19(4), 386–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Isen, A. M., Daubman, K. A., & Nowicki, G. P. (1987). Positive affect facilitates creative problem solving. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(6), 1122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Isenbarger, L., & Zembylas, M. (2006). The emotional labour of caring in teaching. Teaching and Teacher Education, 22(1), 120–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Izard, C. E. (1977). Human emotions. New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Jackson, C. K. (2012). Non-cognitive ability, test scores, and teacher quality: Evidence from 9th grade teachers in North Carolina (No. w18624). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. James, R. (2011). An evaluation of the ‘Circle of Friends’ intervention used to support pupils with autism in their mainstream classrooms (Doctoral dissertation, University of Nottingham).Google Scholar
  146. Jang, H., Reeve, J., & Deci, E. L. (2010). Engaging students in learning activities: It is not autonomy support or structure but autonomy support and structure. Journal of Edu-cational Psychology, 102(3), 588–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Jennings, J., & Rentner, D. S. (2006). Ten big effects of the No Child Left Behind Act on public schools. Phi Delta Kappan, 88(2), 110–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Jennings, P. A., & Greenberg, M. T. (2009). The prosocial classroom: Teacher social and emotional competence in relation to student and classroom outcomes. Review of Educational Research, 79(1), 491–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Jensen, E. (2005). Teaching with the brain in mind. ASCD.Google Scholar
  150. Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Holubec, E. J. (1993). Circles of learning. Edina, MN: Interaction Book Company.Google Scholar
  151. Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Smith, K. A. (1991). Cooperative learning: increasing college faculty instructional productivity. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 4. Washington, DC: School of Education and Human Development, The George Washington University.Google Scholar
  152. Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Smith, K. (2007). The state of cooperative learning in postsecondary and professional settings. Educational Psychology Review, 19(1), 15–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Jussim, L. (1989). Teacher expectations: Self-fulfilling prophecies, perceptual biases, and accuracy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(3), 469–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Kagan, J. (1994). Three seductive ideas. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.Google Scholar
  155. Kalyva, E., & Avramidis, E. (2005). Improving communication between children with autism and their peers through the ‘circle of friends’: A small-scale intervention study. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 18(3), 253–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Kaplan, S., & Berman, M. G. (2010). Directed attention as a common resource for executive functioning and self-regulation. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5(1), 43–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Karten, Y. J., Olariu, A., & Cameron, H. A. (2005). Stress in early life inhibits neurogenesis in adulthood. Trends in Neurosciences, 28(4), 171–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Kautz, T., Heckman, J. J., Diris, R., Ter Weel, B., & Borghans, L. (2014). Fostering and measuring skills: Improving cognitive and non-cognitive skills to promote lifetime success (No. w20749). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Kelly, B. (1999). Circle time. Educational Psychology in Practice, 15(1), 40–44. Scholar
  160. Kim, Y. Y. (2001). Becoming intercultural: An integrative theory of communication and cross-cultural adaptation. Sage.Google Scholar
  161. Klem, A. M., & Connell, J. P. (2004). Relationships matter: Linking teacher support to student engagement and achievement. Journal of School Health, 74(7), 262–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Krashen, S. (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. (Vol. 47, Jyvaeskylae studies in education, psychology and social research). Oxford u.a.: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  163. Lam, B. H. (2017, June). There is no fear in love: The giving of social support to students enhances teachers’ career development. Paper presented at the Education and Cognitive Development Lab research seminar series of National Institute of Education, Singapore.Google Scholar
  164. Lam, B. H., Cheng, R. W. Y., & Yang, M. (2017). Formative feedback as a global facilitator: Impact on intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and positive affect. In S. C. Kong, T. L. Wong, M. Yang, C. F. Chow, & K. H. Tse (Eds.), Emerging practices in scholarship of learning and teaching in a digital era (pp. 265–288). Singapore: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Lashari, T. A., Alias, M., Kesot, M. J., & Akasah, Z. A. (2012). The effect of integrated affective-cognitive learning approach on classroom behavioral engagement of engineering students.Google Scholar
  166. Law, Y. K. (2011). The effects of cooperative learning on enhancing Hong Kong fifth graders’ achievement goals, autonomous motivation and reading proficiency. Journal of Research in Reading, 34(4), 402–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. LeDoux, J. E. (2000). Emotion circuits in the brain. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 23(1), 155–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Lee, C. (1997). Social context, depression and the transition to motherhood. British Journal of Health Psychology, 2(2), 93–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Lee, E. J. (2003). The attachment system throughout the life course: Review and criticisms of attachment theory. Rochester, NY: Rochester Institute of Technology.şim: 29/01/2012).
  170. Lee, J. (2008). Is test-driven external accountability effective? Synthesizing the evidence from cross-state causal-comparative and correlational studies. Review of Educational Research, 78(3), 608–644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Lee, V. E., Smith, J. B., Perry, T. E., & Smylie, M. A. (1999). Social support, Academic Press, and student achievement: A view from the middle grades in Chicago. Improving Chicago’s Schools. A Report of the Chicago Annenberg Research Project. Retrived from
  172. Legault, L., & Green-Demers, I. (2006). Why do high school students lack motivation in the classroom? Toward an understanding of academic motivation and the role of social support. Journal of Education Psychology, 28(1), 567–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Lewis, M. (1993). Self-conscious emotions: Embarrassment, pride, shame, and guilt. In M. Lewis & J. M. Haviland (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (pp. 563–573). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  174. Lezotte, L. W. (1989). School improvement based on the effective schools research. International Journal of Educational Research, 13(7), 815–825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Liu, X., & Tein, J. Y. (2005). Life events, psychopathology, and suicidal behavior in Chinese adolescents. Journal of Affective Disorders, 86(2), 195–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Lockett, C. T., & Harrell, J. P. (2003). Racial identity, self-esteem, and academic achievement: Too much interpretation, too little supporting data. Journal of Black Psychology, 29(3), 325–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Lown, J. (2002). Circle time: The perceptions of teachers and pupils. Educational Psychology in Practice, 18(2), 93–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Mace, C., & Margison, F. (1997). Attachment and psychotherapy: An overview. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 70(3), 209–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Maclellan, E. (2001). Assessment for learning: The differing perceptions of tutors and students. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 26(4), 307–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Macready, T. (2009). Learning social responsibility in schools: A restorative practice. Educational Psychology in Practice, 25(3), 211–220. Scholar
  181. Malecki, C. K., & Demaray, M. K. (2003). What type of support do they need? Investigating student adjustment as related to emotional, informational, appraisal, and instrumental support. School Psychology Quarterly, 18(3), 231–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Malecki, C. K., & Demaray, M. K. (2002). The relationship between perceived social support and maladjustment for students at risk. Psychology in the Schools, 39(3), 305–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Malikow, M. (2006). Teaching in the affective domain: Turning a crier into a crier. Kappa Delta Pi Record, 43(1), 36–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Marks, H. M. (2000). Student engagement in instructional activity: Patterns in the elementary, middle, and high school years. American Educational Research Journal, 37(1), 153–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Mary, L. (2014). Fostering positive peer relations in the primary classroom through circle time and co-operative games. Education 3–13, 42(2), 125–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Marzano, R. J., Marzano, J. S., & Pickering, D. (2003). Classroom management that works: Research-based strategies for every teacher. Alexandra, VA: ASCD.Google Scholar
  187. McCluskey, G., Lloyd, G., Kane, J., Riddell, S., Stead, J., & Weedon, E. (2008). Can restorative practices in schools make a difference? Educational Review, 60(4), 405–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. McCollum, B. D. (2014). The caring beliefs and practices of effective teachers. Electronic Theses & Dissertations, 1186. Retrieved from
  189. McCombs, B. (2004). The learner-centered psychological principles: A framework for balancing academic achievement and social-emotional learning outcomes. In J. Zins, M. Bloodworth, R. Weissberg, & H. Walberg (Eds.), Building academic success in social and emotional learning (pp. 23–29). New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  190. McDermott, J. M., Westerlund, A., Zeanah, C. H., Nelson, C. A., & Fox, N. A. (2012). Early adversity and neural correlates of executive function: Implications for academic adjustment. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 2, S59–S66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. McKenzie, K., Whitley, R., & Weich, S. (2002). Social capital and mental health. British Journal of Psychiatry, 181(4).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Mercer, J. (2011). Attachment theory and tis vicissitudes: Toward an updated theory. Theory & Psychology, 21(1), 25–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Meyer, D. K., & Turner, J. C. (2006). Re-conceptualizing emotion and motivation to learn in classroom contexts. Educational Psychology Review, 18(4), 377–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Michelon, G. (2011). Sustainability disclosure and reputation: A comparative study. Corporate Reputation Review, 14(2), 79–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Middlebrooks, J. S., & Audage, N. C. (2008). The effects of childhood stress on health across the lifespan. Project Report. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.Google Scholar
  196. Midgley, C., & Edelin, K. C. (1998). Middle school reform and early adolescent well-being: The good news and the bad. Educational Psychologist, 33(4), 195–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Miers, D. R. (2001). An International Review of restorative justice (No. 10). Home Office.Google Scholar
  198. Mikulincer, M., & Shaver, P. R. (2001). Attachment Theory and intergroup bias: Evidence that priming the secure base schema attenuates negative reactions to out-groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 97–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Miller, D., & Moran, T. (2007). Theory and practice in self-esteem enhancement: Circle-Time and efficacy-based approaches—a controlled evaluation. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 13(6), 601–615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Morrison, B. (2002). Bullying and victimisation in schools: A restorative justice approach. In Australian Institute of Criminology: Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice, 219. Retrieved from
  201. Morrison, B. E. (2003). Regulating safe school communities: Being responsive and restorative. Journal of Educational Administration, 41(6), 690–704.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Morrison, B. (2007). Restoring safe school communities. Sydney: Fedreation.Google Scholar
  203. Morrison, B. E., & Vaandering, D. (2012). Restorative justice: Pedagogy, praxis, and discipline. Journal of School Violence, 11(2), 138–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Mosley, J. (1993). Turn your school round: A circle-time approach to the development of self-esteem and positive behaviour in the primary staffroom, classroom and playground. Lda.Google Scholar
  205. Mosley, J. (1996). Quality circle time in the primary classroom: Your essential guide to enhancing self-esteem, self-discipline and positive relationships. Lda.Google Scholar
  206. Mosley, J. (2005). Circle time for young children. Routledge.Google Scholar
  207. Murberg, T. A., & Bru, E. (2004). School-related stress and psychosomatic symptoms among Norwegian adolescents. School Psychology International, 25(3), 317–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Murdock, T. B. (1996, April). Expectations, achievement and academic self-concept: The continuing significance of race. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York.Google Scholar
  209. Murdock, T. B. (1999). The social context of risk: Status and motivational predictors of alienation in middle school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 62–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Murray-Harvey, R. (2010). Relationship influences on students’ academic achievement, psychological health and well-being at school. Educational and Child Psychology, 27(1), 104–115.Google Scholar
  211. National Education Association (2015). Preparing 21st century students for a global society. Retrieved from
  212. Neitzel, C., & Stright, A. D. (2003). Mothers’ scaffolding of children’s problem solving: Establishing a foundation of academic self-regulatory competence. Journal of Family Psychology, 17(1), 147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Newmann, F. (1981). Reducing student alienation in high schools: Implications of theory. Harvard Educational Review, 51(4), 546–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Newton, C., Taylor, G., & Wilson, D. (1996). Circles of friends: An inclusive approach to meeting emotional and behavioural needs. Educational Psychology in Practice, 11(4), 41–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Noddings, N. (1984). Caring: A feminine approach to ethics and moral education. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  216. Noddings, N. (1992). The challenge to care in schools. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  217. Noddings, N. (2003). Happiness and education. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Noddings, N. (2013). Caring: A relational approach to ethics and moral education. Berkeley and Los Angeles, California: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  219. Noddings, N. (2005). The challenge to care in schools. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  220. O’Connor, T., & Colwell, J. (2002a). Research section: The effectiveness and rationale of the ‘nurture group’ approach to helping children with emotional and behavioural difficulties remain within mainstream education. British Journal of Special Education, 29(2), 96–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. O’Connor, T., & Colwell, J. (2002b). Research section: The effectiveness and rationale of the ‘nurture group’ approach to helping children with emotional and behavioural difficulties remain within mainstream education. British Journal of Special Education, 29(2), 96–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. O’Donnell, A. M., & O’Kelly, J. (1994). Learning from peers: Beyond the rhetoric of positive results. Educational Psychology Review, 6(4), 321–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. O’Connor, E. (2016). The use of ‘Circle of Friends’ strategy to improve social interactions and social acceptance: A case study of a child with Asperger’s syndrome and other associated needs. Support for Learning, 31(2), 138–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. OECD. (2011). Lessons from PISA for the United States, strong performers and successful reformers in education. OECD Publishing. Retrieved from
  225. Olson, D. H. (2000). Circumplex model of marital and family systems. Journal of Family Therapy, 22(2), 144–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Pat-El, R. J., Tillema, H., Segers, M., & Vedder, P. (2013). Validation of assessment for learning questionnaires for teachers and students. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 83(1), 98–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Pianta, R. C., Hamre, B. K., & Allen, J. P. (2012). Teacher-student relationships and engagement: Conceptualizing, measuring, and improving the capacity of classroom interactions. Handbook of research on student engagement (pp. 365–386). Boston, MA: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Pianta, R. C., Hamre, B., & Stuhlman, M. (2003). Relationships between teachers and children. In W. M. Reynolds & G. E. Miller (Eds.), Comprehensive handbook of psychology (Vol. 7, pp. 199–234). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  229. Pianta, R. C., Steinberg, M. S., & Rollins, K. B. (1995). The first two years of school: Teacher-child relationships and deflections in children’s classroom adjustment. Development and Psychopathology, 7(2), 295–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Pintrich, P. R., & Zusho, A. (2002). The development of academic self-regulation: The role of cognitive and motivational factors. In A. Wigfield & J.S. Eccles, Jacquelynne (Eds.), Development of achievement motivation (pp. 249–284). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Polanczyk, G. V., Salum, G. A., Sugaya, L. S., Caye, A., & Rohde, L. A. (2015). Annual research review: A meta-analysis of the worldwide prevalence of mental disorders in children and adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 56(3), 345–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Pössel, P., Rudasill, K. M., Sawyer, M. G., Spence, S. H., & Bjerg, A. C. (2013). Associations between teacher emotional support and depressive symptoms in Australian adolescents: A 5-year longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 49(11), 2135–2146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Reddy, R., Rhodes, J. E., & Mulhall, P. (2003a). The influence of teacher support on student adjustment in the middle school years: A latent growth curve study. Development and Psychopathology, 15(1), 119–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Reddy, R., Rhodes, J. E., & Mulhall, P. (2003b). The influence of teacher support on student adjustment in the middle school years: A latent growth curve study. Development and Psychopathology, 15(1), 119–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Redmond, M. V. (2015). Social exchange theory. English Technical Reports and White Papers, 5. Retrieved from
  236. Reeve, J. (2002). Self-determination theory applied to educational settings. In E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of self-determination research (pp. 183–203). Rochester, NY, US: University of Rochester Press.Google Scholar
  237. Reeve, J. (2006). Teachers as facilitators: What autonomy-supportive teachers do and why their students benefit. The Elementary School Journal, 106(3), 225–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Reeve, J., & Jang, H. (2006). What teachers say and do to support students’ autonomy during a learning activity. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98(1), 209–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Reigeluth, C. M. (2013). Instructional-design theories and models: A new paradigm of instructional theory, Volume II. Routledge.Google Scholar
  240. Rhodes, J. E., Grossman, J. B., & Resch, N. L. (2000). Agents of change: Pathways through which mentoring relationships influence adolescents’ academic adjustment. Child Development, 71(6), 1662–1671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Richman, J. M., Rosenfeld, L. B., & Bowen, G. L. (1998). Social support for adolescents at risk of school failure. Social Work, 43(4), 309–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Robertson, S. I. (2016). Problem solving: perspectives from cognition and neuroscience. Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  243. Roeser, R. W., & Eccles, J. S. (2000). Schooling and mental health. In Handbook of developmental psychopathology (pp. 135–156). Springer US.Google Scholar
  244. Roeser, R. W., Midgley, C., & Urdan, T. C. (1996). Perceptions of the school psychological environment and early adolescents’ psychological and behavioral functioning in school: The mediating role of goals and belonging. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88(3), 408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Rogers, M. E. (1961). Educational revolution in nursing. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  246. Roorda, D. L. (2012). Teacher-child relationships and interaction processes: Effects on students’ learning behaviors and reciprocal influences between teacher and child (Doctoral dissertation, Universiteit van Amsterdam [Host]).Google Scholar
  247. Rosenthal, R., & Jacobson, L. (1968). Pygmalion in the classroom. The Urban Review, 3(1), 16–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Rueger, S. Y., Malecki, C. K., & Demaray, M. K. (2010). Relationship between multiple sources of perceived social support and psychological and academic adjustment in early adolescence: Comparisons across gender. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39(1), 47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Russell, S. L. (2012a). Individual- and classroom-level social support and classroom behaviour in the middle school (Unpublished dissertation for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy). University of Maryland, College Park.Google Scholar
  250. Russell, S. L. (2012b). Individual-and classroom-level social support and classroom behavior in middle school (Ph.D. dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.Google Scholar
  251. Ryan, A. M. (2000). Peer groups as a context for the socialization of adolescents’ motivation, engagement, and achievement in school. Educational Psychologist, 35(2), 101–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Ryan, A. M., & Patrick, H. (2001). The classroom social environment and changes in adolescents’ motivation and engagement during middle school. American Educational Research Journal, 38(2), 437–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2017). Self-determination theory: Basic psychological needs in motivation, development, and wellness. New York: Guilford Publications.Google Scholar
  254. Ryan, R. M., Stiller, J. D., & Lynch, J. H. (1994). Representations of relationships to teachers, parents, and friends as predictors of academic motivation and self-esteem. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 14(2), 226–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Sacks, P. (2000). Predictable losers in testing schemes. School Administrator, 57(11), 6–9.Google Scholar
  256. Sadler, D. R. (2010). Beyond feedback: Developing student capability in complex appraisal. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 35(5), 535–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Sahlins, M. (1972). Stone age economy. Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  258. Salend, S. J., Whittaker, C. R., & Reeder, E. (1992). Group evaluation: A collaborative, peer-mediated behavior management system. Exceptional Children, 59(3), 203–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Sanders, T. (2007). Helping children thrive at school: The effectiveness of nurture groups. Educational Psychology in Practice, 23(1), 45–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Schlieder, M., Maldonado, N., & Baltes, B. (2014). An investigation of “Circle of Friends” peer-mediated intervention for students with autism. Journal of Social Change, 6(1).Google Scholar
  261. Schmitz, T. W., De Rosa, E., & Anderson, A. K. (2009). Opposing influences of affective state valence on visual cortical encoding. Journal of Neuroscience, 29(22), 7199–7207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Schweisfurth, M. (2015). Learner-centred pedagogy: Towards a post-2015 agenda for teaching and learning. International Journal of Educational Development, 40, 259–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Scott, K., & Lee, A. (2009). Beyond the ‘classic’nurture group model: An evaluation of part-time and cross-age nurture groups in a Scottish local authority. Support for Learning, 24(1), 5–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Seligman, M. E., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2014). Positive psychology: An introduction. Flow and the foundations of positive psychology (pp. 279–298). Netherlands: Springer.Google Scholar
  265. Seth-Smith, F., Levi, N., Pratt, R., Jaffey, D., & Fonagy, P. (2010). Do nurture groups improve the social, emotional and behavioural functioning of at risk children? Educational & Child Psychology, 27, 21–34.Google Scholar
  266. Sharan, Y. (2010). Cooperative learning for academic and social gains: Valued pedagogy, problematic practice. European Journal of Education, 45, 300–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Shaver, P. R., Collins, N., & Clark, C. L. (1996). Attachment styles and internal working models of self and relationship partners. In G. J. O. Fletcher & J. Fitness (Eds.), Knowledge structures in close relationships: A social psychological approach (pp. 25–61). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  268. Shaw, G. (2007). Restorative practices in Australian schools: Changing relationships, changing culture. Conflict Resolution Quarterly, 25(1), 127–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Skinner, B. F. (2011). About behaviorism. New York: Vintage.Google Scholar
  270. Skinner, E. A., & Belmont, M. J. (1993). Motivation in the classroom: Reciprocal effects of teacher behavior and student engagement across the school year. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85(4), 571.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Skinner, E. A., Kindermann, T. A., Connell, J. P., & Wellborn, J. G. (2009). Engagement and disaffection as organizational constructs in the dynamics of motivational development. In K. R. Wentzel & A. Wigfield (Eds.), Handbook of motivation at school (pp. 223–245). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  272. Slavin, R. E. (1983). When does cooperative learning increase student achievement? Psychological Bulletin, 94(3), 429–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Slavin, R. E. (2008). Cooperative learning, success for all, and evidence-based reform in education. Éducation et didactique, 2(2), 149–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Slavin, R. E. (2011). Cooperative learning. In V. G. Aukrust (Ed.), Learning and cognition in education (pp. 160–166). Boston: Elsevier Academic Press.Google Scholar
  275. Slavin, R. E. (2014). Cooperative learning and academic achievement: Why does groupwork work? Anales de Psicología/Annals of Psychology, 30(3), 785–791.Google Scholar
  276. Smith, K., Walker, S., Ainley, P., & McNay, I. (2012). From the editors. Compass: Journal of Learning and Teaching, 3(4).Google Scholar
  277. Stipek, D. (2002). Good instruction is motivating. In A. Wigfield & J. S. Eccles (Eds.), Development of achievement motivation: A volume in the educational psychology series (pp. 309–332). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Storrie, K., Ahern, K., & Tuckett, A. (2010). A systematic review: Students with mental health problems—A growing problem. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 16(1), 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Strangeman, C. C. (2007). Strange allies?. English Catholicism and the Enlightenment: Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.Google Scholar
  280. Stryker, R. (1994). Rules, resources, and legitimacy processes: Some implications for social conflict, order, and change. American Journal of Sociology, 99(4), 847–910.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Suldo, S. M., Friedrich, A. A., White, T., Farmer, J., Minch, D., & Michalowski, J. (2009). Teacher support and adolescents’ subjective well-being: A mixed-methods investigation. School Psychology Review, 38(1), 67–85.Google Scholar
  282. Suldo, S. M., Shaffer, E. J., & Riley, K. N. (2008). A social-cognitive-behavioral model of academic predictors of adolescents’ life satisfaction. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(1), 56–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. Sutton, R. E., & Wheatley, K. F. (2003). Teachers’ emotions and teaching: A review of the literature and directions for future research. Educational Psychology Review, 15(4), 327–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. Taylor, G. (1996). Creating a circle of friends: A case study. Peer counselling in school, 73–86.Google Scholar
  285. Taylor, G. (1997). Community building in schools: Developing a circle of friends. Educational and Child Psychology, 14, 45–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. Teddlie, C., & Reynolds, D. (2000). The international handbook of school effectiveness research. Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  287. The Nurture Group Network. (2016). What is a nurture group? Retrieved from
  288. Thibault, J. W., & Kelley, H. H. (1959). The social psychology of groups. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  289. Tinto, V. (1997). Classrooms as communities: Exploring the educational character of student persistence. The Journal of Higher Education, 68(6), 599–623.Google Scholar
  290. Tominey, S. L., & McClelland, M. M. (2011). Red light, purple light: Findings from a randomized trial using circle time games to improve behavioral self-regulation in preschool. Early Education and Development, 22(3), 489–519. Scholar
  291. Vaandering, D. (2014). Implementing restorative justice practice in schools: What pedagogy reveals. Journal of Peace Education, 11(1), 64–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. van IJzendoorn MH, & Sagi-Schwartz, A. (2008). Cross-cultural patterns of attachment; Universal and contextual dimensions. In J. Cassidy, & P. R., Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research and clinical applications (pp. 880–905). New York and London: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  293. Vavrus, M. (2008). Culturally responsive teaching. 21st Century Education: A Reference Handbook, 2, 49–57. Retrieved from
  294. Verschueren, K., Doumen, S., & Buyse, E. (2012). Relationships with mother, teacher, and peers: Unique and joint effects on young children’s self-concept. Attachment & Human Development, 14(3), 233–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  296. Wang, M. C., Haertel, G. D., & Walberg, H. J. (1994). Educational resilience in inner cities. In M. C. Wang & E. W. Gordon (Eds.), Educational resilience in inner-city America: Challenges and prospects (pp. 45–72). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  297. Wang, M. T., & Eccles, J. S. (2012). Social support matters: Longitudinal effects of social support on three dimensions of school engagement from middle to high school. Child Development, 83(3), 877–895.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Wang, M. T., & Holcombe, R. (2010). Adolescents’ perceptions of school environment, engagement, and academic achievement in middle school. American Educational Research Journal, 47(3), 633–662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. Watson, D., Wiese, D., Vaidya, J., & Tellegen, A. (1999). The two general activation systems of affect: Structural findings, evolutionary considerations, and psychobiological evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 820–838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. Wearmouth, J., McKinney, R., & Glynn, T. (2007). Restorative justice: Two examples from New Zealand schools. British Journal of Special Education, 34(4), 196–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. Weiner, L. (2000). Research in the 90s: Implications for urban teacher preparation. Review of Educational Research, 70(3), 369–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. Weinstein, R. S. (1989). Perceptions of classroom processes and student motivation: Children’s views of self-fulfilling prophecies. Research on Motivation in Education, 3, 187–221.Google Scholar
  303. Weinstein, R. S. (2002). Overcoming inequality in schooling: A call to action for community psychology. American Journal of Community Psychology, 30(1), 21–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. Welsh, J. A., Nix, R. L., Blair, C., Bierman, K. L., & Nelson, K. E. (2010). The development of cognitive skills and gains in academic school readiness for children from low-income families. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(1), 43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. Wentzel, K. R. (1997). Student motivation in middle school: The role of perceived pedagogical caring. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89(3), 411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. Wentzel, K. R. (1998). Social relationships and motivation in middle school: The role of parents, teachers, and peers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(2), 202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. Wentzel, K. R. (1999). Social-motivational processes and interpersonal relationships: Implications for understanding motivation at school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(1), 76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. Wentzel, K. R. (2012). Socio-cultural contexts, social competence, and engagement at school. In S. Christenson, A. Reschly, & C. Wylie (Eds.), Handbook of research on student engagement (pp. 479–488). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. Wentzel, K. R., & Asher, S. R. (1995). The academic lives of neglected, rejected, popular, and controversial children. Child Development, 66(3), 754–763.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. Wentzel, K. R., & Watkins, D. E. (2002). Peer relationships and collaborative learning as contexts for academic enablers. School Psychology Review, 31(3), 366.Google Scholar
  311. Wentzel, K. R., Barry, C. M., & Caldwell, K. A. (2004a). Friendships in middle school: Influences on motivation and school adjustment. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(2), 195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. Wentzel, K. R., Barry, C. M., & Caldwell, K. A. (2004b). Friendships in middle school: Influences on motivation and school adjustment. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(2), 195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. Wentzel, K. R., Battle, A., Russell, S. L., & Looney, L. B. (2010a). Social supports from teachers and peers as predictors of academic and social motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 35(3), 193–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. Wentzel, K. R., Battle, A., Russell, S. L., & Looney, L. B. (2010b). Social supports from teachers and peers as predictors of academic and social motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 35(3), 193–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. Wentzel, K., Baker, S. A. N. D. R. A., & Russell, S. (2009). Peer relationships and positive adjustment at school. Handbook of positive psychology in schools, 229–243.Google Scholar
  316. Wigfield, A., & Eccles, J. S. (2002). The development of competence beliefs, expectancies for success, and achievement values from childhood through adolescence.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. Willis, J. (2007). The neuroscience of joyful education. Educational Leadership, 64(9). Retrieved from
  318. Wingate, U. (2010). The impact of formative feedback on the development of academic writing. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 35(5), 519–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. Wood, D. J. (1980). Teaching the young child: Some relationships between social interaction, language, and thought. In D. R. Olsen (Ed.), The social foundations of language and thought (pp. 280–296). New York, NY: Norton.Google Scholar
  320. Wood, D., & Middleton, D. (1975). A study of assisted problem-solving. British Journal of Psychology, 66(2), 181–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. Wood, D., Bruner, J. S., & Ross, G. (1976). The role of tutoring in problem solving. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 17, 89–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. World Health Organization. (2017 April). Mental disorders fact sheet. Retrieved from
  323. Zehr, P. E. (2002). Considerations for use of the Hoffmann reflex in exercise studies. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 86(6), 455–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Education University of Hong KongHong KongHong Kong

Personalised recommendations