Well-being, Psychological Adjustments and Effective Social Support Giving

  • Bick-har LAMEmail author


As a popular research topic spanning a few decades, social support research has generated voluminous empirical findings which have shown the huge potential of utilising its benefits in different occupational fields apart from the fields of health psychology and medical health where this topic originated. The previous chapter clarifies the different conceptualisations of social support research and the instruments that measure the effects/outcomes, as well as methodological concerns. This chapter continues to establish the theoretical ground of social support research by elaborating the concepts related to psychological well-being and describing the psychological adjustment of people who need support. It then explores the conditions of effective social support giving. First, it describes the central concept—well-being—a concept being used to conceptualise its benefits for human beings. Second, based on the backdrop provided by the well-being literature, the chapter further discusses the emotional status of various groups of people in society who encounter life situations and experience critical circumstances which may cause them much effort to regulate their emotions and adjust themselves in living in their social environment. Finally, the conditions and factors that lead to effective social support are explored, addressing a list of parameters that describe effective social support giving. In sum, the chapter aims to achieve the following purposes: (1) to present a comprehensive definition of well-being and its associated psychological theories; (2) to discuss the inner self and emotional struggles of groups of needy people in society; (3) to identify facilitative conditions of social support and effective social support giving and (4) to discuss the implications of the theories of well-being and effective social support strategies to the situation of teaching in schools. The chapter ends with a list of suggestions about effective social support measures and some conditions that inhibit the effectiveness of social support. It suggests that the effectiveness of social support giving is dependent upon the nature of offering the support, types of support given at different times of need, support givers’ relationship with the support recipient, support givers’ experience, gender, common cultural traits and personalities of support receivers. The content of this chapter is planned in a way which leads readers to construct the knowledge of and appreciate the value of social support, the implications for application to the field of education are also discussed at the end.


  1. Adams, G. (2005). The cultural grounding of personal relationship: Enemyship in North American and West African worlds. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88(6), 948–968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams, G., & Plaut, V. C. (2003). The cultural grounding of personal relationship: Friendship in North American and West African worlds. Personal Relationships, 10(3), 333–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahmed, W., Minnaert, A., van der Werf, G., & Kuyper, H. (2010). Perceived social support and early adolescents’ achievement: The mediational roles of motivational beliefs and emotions. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39(1), 36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amirkhan, J. H., Risinger, R. T., & Swickert, R. J. (1995). Extraversion: A “hidden” personality factor in coping? Journal of Personality, 63(2), 189–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Andrews, F. M., & Withey, S. B. (1976). Social indicators of well-being. New York and London: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55, 469–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arora, N. K., Finney Rutten, L. J., Gustafson, D. H., Moser, R., & Hawkins, R. P. (2007). Perceived helpfulness and impact of social support provided by family, friends, and health care providers to women newly diagnosed with breast cancer. Psycho-Oncology, 16(5), 474–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arseneault, L., Walsh, E., Trzesniewski, K., Newcombe, R., Caspi, A., & Moffitt, T. E. (2006). Bullying victimization uniquely contributes to adjustment problems in young children: A nationally representative cohort study. Pediatrics, 118, 130–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Asendorpf, J. B., & Van Aken, M. A. (2003). Personality–relationship transaction in adolescence: Core versus surface personality characteristics. Journal of Personality, 71(4), 629–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Auster, C. J., & Ohm, S. C. (2000). Masculinity and femininity in contemporary American society: A reevaluation using the Bem Sex-Role Inventory. Sex roles, 43(7), 499–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bandura, A. (1988). Self-efficacy conception of anxiety. Anxiety Research, 1(2), 77–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.Google Scholar
  13. Baruch-Feldman, C., Brondolo, E., Ben-Dayan, D., & Schwartz, J. (2002). Sources of social support and burnout, job satisfaction, and productivity. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 7(1), 84–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Baumeister, R. F., Campbell, J. D., Krueger, J. I., & Vohs, K. D. (2003). Does high self-esteem cause better performance, interpersonal success, happiness, or healthier lifestyles? Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4(1), 1–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Baumeister, R. F., Campbell, J. D., Krueger, J. I., & Vohs, K. D. (2005). Exploding the self-esteem myth. Scientific American, 292(1), 84–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bavojdan, M. R., Towhidi, A., & Rahmati, A. (2012). The relationship between mental health and general self-efficacy beliefs, coping strategies and locus of control in male drug abusers. Addiction and Health, 3(3–4), 111–118.Google Scholar
  17. Becker, B. B., & Luthar, S. S. (2002). Social-emotional factors affecting achievement outcomes among disadvantaged students: Closing the achievement gap. Educational Psychologist, 37(4), 197–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Beehr, T. A., Bowling, N. A., & Bennett, M. M. (2010). Occupational stress and failures of social support: When helping hurts. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 15(1), 45–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bell, V. (2007). Online information, extreme communities and internet therapy: Is the internet good for our mental health? Journal of Mental Health, 16(4), 445–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Belle, D. (1982). The stress of caring: Women as providers of social support. In L. Goldberger & S. Breznitz (Eds.), Handbook of stress: Theoretical and clinical aspects (pp. 496–505). New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  21. Bolger, N., & Amarel, D. (2007). Effects of social support visibility on adjustment to stress: Experimental evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(3), 458–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bolger, N., Zuckerman, A., & Kessler, R. C. (2000). Invisible support and adjustment to stress. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(6), 953–961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Booth, T. (2000). Inclusion and exclusion policy in England: Who controls the agenda? In F. Armstrong, D. Armstrong, & L. Barton (Eds.), Inclusive education: Policy, contexts and comparative perspectives. London: David Fulton.Google Scholar
  24. Bowlby, J. (1980). Attachment and loss: Vol. 3. Loss: Sadness and depression. New York: Basic books.Google Scholar
  25. Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment and loss: Retrospect and prospect. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 52(4), 664–678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bowling, N. A., Beehr, T. A., & Swader, W. M. (2005). Giving and receiving social support at work: The roles of personality and reciprocity. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 67(3), 476–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Branje, S. J., van Lieshout, C. F., & van Aken, M. A. (2005). Relations between agreeableness and perceived support in family relationships: Why nice people are not always supportive. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 29(2), 120–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Brannon, L. (2011). Gender: Psychological perspectives (6th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  29. Brown, L. F., Kroenke, K., Theobald, D. E., Wu, J., & Tu, W. (2010). The association of depression and anxiety with health-related quality of life in cancer patients with depression and/or pain. Psycho-Oncology, 19(7), 734–741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Burgess, A. P., Carretero, M., Elkington, A., Pasqual-Marsettin, E., Lobaccaro, C., & Catalan, J. (2000). The role of personality, coping style and social support in health-related quality of life in HIV infection. Quality of Life Research, 9(4), 423–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Burke, M., Marlow, C., & Lento, T. (2010). Social network activity and social well-being. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Atlanta, USA (pp. 1909–1912).Google Scholar
  32. Burleson, B. R. (2003). The experience and effects of emotional support: What the study of cultural and gender differences can tell us about close relationships, emotion, and interpersonal communication. Personal Relationships, 10(1), 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Burleson, B. R. (2009). Understanding the outcomes of supportive communication: A dual-process approach. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 26(1), 21–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Buunk, B. P., & Schaufeli, W. B. (1999). Reciprocity in interpersonal relationships: An evolutionary perspective on its importance for health and well-being. European Review of Social Psychology, 10(1), 259–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Cacioppo, J. T., & Berntson, G. G. (1999). The affect system architecture and operating characteristics. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 8(5), 133–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Carlson, J., Watts, R. E., & Maniacci, M. (2006). Adlerian therapy: Theory and practice. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Carr, A. (2011). Positive psychology: The science of happiness and human strengths. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  38. Carrington, S., & Robinson, R. (2006). Inclusive school community: Why is it so complex? International Journal of Inclusive Education, 10(4–5), 323–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Census and Statistics Department. (2012). Hong Kong 2011 Population Census Thematic Report: Ethnic Minorities. Retrieved from
  40. Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2005). Substance abuse treatment for persons with co-occurring disorders. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 42. DHHS Publication No. (SMA) 05-3922. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.Google Scholar
  41. Celeste, M., & Grum, D. K. (2010). Social integration of children with visual impairment: A developmental model. İlköğretim Online, 9(1).Google Scholar
  42. Chan, K. L. (2005). Study on child abuse and spouse battering: Report on findings of household survey. [A consultancy study commissioned by the SWD of the HKSAR]. Hong Kong: Department of Social Work & Social Administration, the University of Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  43. Cheung, E. & Chiu, P. (2016, March 12). Students at breaking point: Hong Kong announces emergency measures after 22 suicides since the start of the academic year. The South China Morning Post. Retrieved from
  44. Chu, T. Q., Kim, H. S., & Sherman, D. K. (2008, February). Culture and the perceptions of implicit and explicit social support use. Poster Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Albuquerque, NM.Google Scholar
  45. Chua, H. F., Boland, J. E., & Nisbett, R. E. (2005). Cultural variation in eye movements during scene perception. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102(35), 12629–12633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Clarke, K. K., Freeland-Graves, J., Klohe-Lehman, D. M., & Bohman, T. M. (2007). Predictors of weight loss in low-income mothers of young children. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 107(7), 1146–1154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Cobb, S. (1976). Social support as a moderator of life stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 38(5), 300–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Cohen, L. H., Hettler, T. R., & Park, C. L. (1997). Social support, personality, and life stress adjustment. In G. R. Pierce, B. Lakey, & I. G. Sarason (Eds.), Sourcebook of social support and personality (pp. 215–228). New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Cohen, S., & Wills, T. A. (1985). Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 98(2), 310–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Collins, N. L., & Feeney, B. C. (2000). A safe haven: An attachment theory perspective on support seeking and caregiving in intimate relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(6), 1053–1073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Connell, R. (2014). Rethinking gender from the South. Feminist Studies, 40(3), 518–539.Google Scholar
  52. Constantino, R. E., Sekula, L. K., Rabin, B., & Stone, C. (2000). Negative life experiences negative life experiences, depression, and immune function in abused and nonabused women. Biological Research for Nursing, 1(3), 190–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Copeland, J., & Hall, W. (1992). A comparison of women seeking drug and alcohol treatment in a specialist women’s and two traditional mixed-sex treatment services. British Journal of Addiction, 87(9), 1293–1302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1985). The NEO Personality Inventory manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  55. Courtenay, W. H. (2000). Behavioral factors associated with disease, injury, and death among men: Evidence and implications for prevention. The Journal of Men’s Studies, 9(1), 81–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Courtenay, W. H. (2003). Key determinants of the health and well-being of men and boys. International Journal of Men’s Health, 2(1), 1–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Cutrona, C. E. (1996). Social support in couples: Marriage as a resource in times of stress (Vol. 13). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Cutrona, C. E., & Cole, V. (2000). Optimizing support in the natural network. In S. Cohen, L. G. Underwood, & B. H. Gottlieb (Eds.), Social support measurement and intervention: A guide for health and social scientists (pp. 278–308). New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Cutrona, C. E., Russell, D. W., Brown, P. A., Clark, L. A., Hessling, R. M., & Gardner, K. A. (2005). Neighborhood context, personality, and stressful life events as predictors of depression among African American women. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114(1), 3–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Dakof, G. A., & Taylor, S. E. (1990). Victims’ perceptions of social support: What is helpful from whom? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58(1), 80–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. de Charms, R. (1968). Personal causation. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  62. de Grood, J. A., & Wallace, J. E. (2011). In sickness and in health: An exploration of spousal support and occupational similarity. Work & Stress, 25(3), 272–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behaviour. New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11(4), 227–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Deelstra, J. T., Peeters, M. C., Schaufeli, W. B., Stroebe, W., Zijlstra, F. R., & van Doornen, L. P. (2003). Receiving instrumental support at work: When help is not welcome. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(2), 324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Dehle, C., & Landers, J. E. (2005). You can’t always get what you want, but can you get what you need? Personality traits and social support in marriage. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24(7), 1051–1076.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. DeNeve, K. M. (1999). Happy as an extraverted clam? The role of personality for subjective well-being. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 8(5), 141–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Diehl, C., Koenig, M., & Ruckdeschel, K. (2014). Religiosity and gender equality: Comparing natives and Muslim migrants in Germany. Gender, Race and Religion, 75–98.Google Scholar
  69. Diener, E., Lucas, R. E., & Oishi, S. (2002). Subjective well-being. Handbook of Positive Psychology, 16(2), 63–73.Google Scholar
  70. Diener, E., & Seligman, M. E. (2002). Very happy people. Psychological Science, 13(1), 81–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Dosani, S., Harding, C., & Wilson, S. (2014). Online groups and patient forums. Current Psychiatry Reports, 16(11), 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Duckitt, J. (1984). Social support, personality and the prediction of psychological distress: An interactionist approach. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40(5), 1199–1205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Dunkel-Schetter, C., Blasband, D. E., Feinstein, L. G., & Herbert, T. B. (1992). Elements of supportive interactions: When are attempts to help effective? In S. Spacapan & S. Oskamp (Eds.), Helping and being helped: Naturalistic studies (pp. 83–114). Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  74. Dunn, J., & Layard, R. (2009). A good childhood: Searching for values in a competitive age. Penguin UK.Google Scholar
  75. Eagly, A. H., & Crowley, M. (1986). Gender and helping behavior: A meta-analytic review of the social psychological literature. Psychological Bulletin, 100(3), 283–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Eastburg, M. C., Williamson, M., Gorsuch, R., & Ridley, C. (1994). Social support, personality, and burnout in nurses. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24(14), 1233–1250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Eby, L., Buits, M., Lockwood, A., & Simon, S. A. (2004). Protégés negative mentoring experiences: Construct development and nomological validation. Personnel Psychology, 57(2), 411–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Eccles, J., & Roeser, R. (2009). Schools, academic motivation, and stageeenvironment fit. In R. M. Learner, & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (3rd ed.). (pp. 404–434). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  79. El-Bushra, J. (2000). Rethinking gender and development practice for the twenty-first century. Gender & Development, 8(1), 55–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Erikson, E. H. (1959). Identity and the life cycle: Selected papers. Psychological Issues, 1, 1–71.Google Scholar
  81. Erikson, E. H. (1968). Youth: Identity and crisis. New York: NY, WW.Google Scholar
  82. Feeney, B. C., & Collins, N. L. (2015). A new look at social support: A theoretical perspective on thriving through relationships. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 19(2), 113–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Feng, B., & Hyun, M. J. (2012). The influence of friends’ instant messenger status on individuals’ coping and support-seeking. Communication Studies, 63(5), 536–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ficková, E. (2001). Personality regulators of coping behavior in adolescents. Studia Psychologica, 43(4), 321–329.Google Scholar
  85. Finch, J. F., & Graziano, W. G. (2001). Predicting depression from temperament, personality, and patterns of social relations. Journal of Personality, 69(1), 27–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Fisher, S., & Hood, B. (1987). The stress of the transition to university: A longitudinal study of psychological disturbance, absent-mindedness and vulnerability to homesickness. British Journal of Psychology, 78(4), 425–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Fisher, J. D., Nadler, A., & Whitcher-Alagna, S. (1982). Recipient reactions to aid. Psychological Bulletin, 91(1), 27–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Forgeard, M. J., Jayawickreme, E., Kern, M. L., & Seligman, M. E. (2011). Doing the right thing: Measuring wellbeing for public policy. International Journal of Wellbeing, 1(1), 79–106.Google Scholar
  89. Forlin, C. (2010). Developing and implementing quality inclusive education in Hong Kong: Implications for teacher education. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 10, 177–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Frison, E., & Eggermont, S. (2016). Exploring the relationships between different types of Facebook use, perceived online social support, and adolescents’ depressed mood. Social Science Computer Review, 34(2), 153–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Gall, T. L., Evans, D. R., & Bellerose, S. (2000). Transition to first-year university: Patterns of change in adjustment across life domains and time. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 19(4), 544–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Gemmill, E. L., & Peterson, M. (2006). Technology use among college students: Implications for student affairs professionals. NASPA Journal, 43(2), 280–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Gilligan, C. (1982). In a different voice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  94. Gleason, M. E., Iida, M., Bolger, N., & Shrout, P. E. (2003). Daily supportive equity in close relationships. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29(8), 1036–1045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. GO-Globe Web Design Hong Kong. (2015, May 16). Social media usage in Hong Kong—Statistics and trends [Web log post]. Retrieved from
  96. Graham, K., & Homel, R. (2008). Raising the bar: Preventing violence in and around bars, pubs and clubs. Oregon: Willan Publishing.Google Scholar
  97. Groh, D. R., Jason, L. A., Davis, M. I., Olson, B. D., & Ferrari, J. R. (2007). Friends, family, and alcohol abuse: An examination of general and alcohol-specific social support. American Journal on Addictions, 16(1), 49–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(2), 348–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Haas, S. M., Irr, M. E., Jennings, N. A., & Wagner, L. M. (2011). Online negative enabling support groups. New Media & Society, 13(1), 40–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Haferkamp, N., & Krämer, N. C. (2011). Social comparison 2.0: Examining the effects of online profiles on social-networking sites. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14(5), 309–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Hamre, B. K., & Pianta, R. C. (2001). Early teacher–child relationships and the trajectory of children’s school outcomes through eighth grade. Child Development, 72(2), 625–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Hargreaves, A. (1999). The psychic rewards (and annoyances) of teaching. In M. Hammersley (Ed.), Researching school experience: Ethnographic studies of teaching and learning (pp. 85–104). London & New York: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  103. Haslam, S. A., Reicher, S. D., & Levine, M. (2012). When other people are heaven, when other people are hell: How social identity determines the nature and impact of social support. In J. Jetten, C. Haslam, & S. A. Haslam (Eds.), The social cure: Identity, health, and wellbeing (pp. 157–174). London & New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  104. Heflin, C. M., & Pattillo, M. (2006). Poverty in the family: Race, siblings, and socioeconomic heterogeneity. Social Science Research, 35(4), 804–822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Henwood, F. (2000). From the woman question in technology to the technology question in feminism: Rethinking gender equality in IT education. European Journal of Women’s Studies, 7(2), 209–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Hong Kong SAR Government. (2016). Hong Kong Poverty Situation Report 2015. Retrieved from
  107. Hong, Y., Pena-Purcell, N. C., & Ory, M. G. (2012). Outcomes of online support and resources for cancer survivors: A systematic literature review. Patient Education and Counseling, 86(3), 288–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Hoth, K. F., Christensen, A. J., Ehlers, S. L., Raichle, K. A., & Lawton, W. J. (2007). A longitudinal examination of social support, agreeableness and depressive symptoms in chronic kidney disease. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 30(1), 69–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Howland, M., & Simpson, J. A. (2010). Getting in under the radar a dyadic view of invisible support. Psychological Science, 21(12), 1878–1885.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Huber, M., Knottnerus, J. A., Green, L., van der Horst, H., Jadad, A. R., Kromhout, D., … & Schnabel, P. (2011). How should we define health? Bmj, 343, d4163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Itkowitz, N. I., Kerns, R. D., & Otis, J. D. (2003). Support and coronary heart disease: The importance of significant other responses. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 26(1), 19–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Jacobson, D. E. (1986). Types and timing of social support. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 27(3), 250–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Jacobson, N., & Greenley, D. (2001). What is recovery? A conceptual model and explication. Psychiatric Services, 52(4), 482–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Jaffee, S., & Hyde, J. S. (2000). Gender differences in moral orientation: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 126(5), 703–726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Jensen-Campbell, L. A., & Graziano, W. G. (2001). Agreeableness as a moderator of interpersonal conflict. Journal of Personality, 69(2), 323–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Jones, R., Sharkey, S., Ford, T., Emmens, T., Hewis, E., Smithson, J., … & Owens, C. (2011). Online discussion forums for young people who self-harm: User views. The Psychiatrist Online, 35(10), 364–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Kabeer, N. (2016). Gender equality, economic growth, and women’s agency: The “endless variety” and “monotonous similarity” of patriarchal constraints. Feminist Economics, 22(1), 295–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Karlsen, S., & Nazroo, J. Y. (2002). Relation between racial discrimination, social class, and health among ethnic minority groups. American Journal of Public Health, 92(4), 624–631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Kasser, T., & Ryan, R. M. (1996). Further examining the American dream: Differential correlates of intrinsic and extrinsic goals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22(3), 280–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Keller, E. F. (1991). Gender and science. In E. Thermey (Ed.), Women’s studies encyclopedia (pp. 153–156). New York: Peter Beduck.Google Scholar
  121. Kernic, M. A., Wolf, M. E., & Holt, V. L. (2000). Rates and relative risk of hospital admission among women in violent intimate partner relationships. American Journal of Public Health, 90(9), 1416–1420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Keyes, C. L., & Annas, J. (2009). Feeling good and functioning well: Distinctive concepts in ancient philosophy and contemporary science. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 4(3), 197–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Kim, H. S. (2008). Culture and the cognitive and neuroendocrine responses to speech. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94(1), 32–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Kim, H. S., & Sherman, D. K. (2007). “Express yourself”: Culture and the effect of self-expression on choice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(1), 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Kim, H. S., Sherman, D. K., Ko, D., & Taylor, S. E. (2006). Pursuit of comfort and pursuit of harmony: Culture, relationships, and social support seeking. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32(12), 1595–1607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Kim, H. S., Sherman, D. K., & Taylor, S. E. (2008). Culture and social support. American Psychologist, 63(6), 518–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Kitayama, S., & Uchida, Y. (2005, March). Interdependent agency: An alternative system for action. In R. M. Sorrentino, D. Cohen, J. M. Olson, & M. P. Zanna (Eds.), Cultural and social behavior: The Ontario symposium (Vol. 10, pp. 137–164). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  128. Kross, E., Verduyn, P., Demiralp, E., Park, J., Lee, D. S., Lin, N., … & Ybarra, O. (2013). Facebook use predicts declines in subjective well-being in young adults. PloS One, 8(8), e69841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Lakey, B., & Cassady, P. B. (1990). Cognitive processes in perceived social support. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59(2), 337–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Lakey, B., & Dickinson, L. G. (1994). Antecedents of perceived support: Is perceived family environment generalized to new social relationships? Cognitive Therapy and Research, 18(1), 39–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Lam, B. H. (2011). A reflective account of a preservice teacher’s effort to implement a progressive curriculum in field practice. Schools, 8(1), 22–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Leary, M. R. (2007). Motivational and emotional aspects of the self. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 317–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Lee, R. M. (2005). Resilience against discrimination: Ethnic identity and other-group orientation as protective factors for Korean Americans. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52(1), 36–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Lee-Baggley, D., Preece, M., & DeLongis, A. (2005). Coping with interpersonal stress: Role of Big Five traits. Journal of Personality, 73(5), 1141–1180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Levine, R. M., Prosser, A., Evans, D., & Reicher, S. D. (2005). Identity and emergency intervention: How social group membership and inclusiveness of group boundaries shapes helping behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 443–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Levitt, M. J., Lane, J. D., & Levitt, J. (2005). Immigration stress, social support, and adjustment in the first postmigration year: An intergenerational analysis. Research in Human Development, 2(4), 159–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Lewis, S. P., & Michal, N. J. (2016). Start, stop, and continue: Preliminary insight into the appeal of self-injury e-communities. Journal of health psychology, 21(2), 250–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Lin, C. P., & Bhattacherjee, A. (2009). Understanding online social support and its antecedents: A socio-cognitive model. The Social Science Journal, 46(4), 724–737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Lucas, R. E., Diener, E., & Suh, E. (1996). Discriminant validity of well-being measures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71(3), 616–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Luszczynska, A., Boehmer, S., Knoll, N., Schulz, U., & Schwarzer, R. (2007). Emotional support for men and women with cancer: Do patients receive what their partners provide? International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 14(3), 156–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Luttik, M. L., Jaarsma, T., Moser, D., Sanderman, R., & van Veldhuisen, D. J. (2005). The importance and impact of social support on outcomes in patients with heart failure: An overview of the literature. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 20(3), 162–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. MacGeorge, E. L. (2003). Gender differences in attributions and emotions in helping contexts. Sex Roles, 48(3), 175–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Maddy, L. M., Cannon, J. G., & Lichtenberger, E. J. (2015). The effects of social support on self-esteem, self-efficacy, and job search efficacy in the unemployed. Journal of Employment Counseling, 52(2), 87–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Malecki, C. K., & Demaray, M. K. (2003). What type of support do they need? Investigating student adjustment as related to emotional, informational, appraisal, and instrumental support. School Psychology Quarterly, 18(3), 231–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Marigold, D. C., Cavallo, J. V., Holmes, J. G., & Wood, J. V. (2014). You can’t always give what you want: The challenge of providing social support to low self-esteem individuals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 107(1), 56–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Markowitz, F. E. (2001). Modeling processes in recovery from mental illness: Relationships between symptoms, life satisfaction, and self-concept. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 64–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98(2), 224–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4), 370–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Masuda, T., & Nisbett, R. E. (2001). Attending holistically versus analytically: Comparing the context sensitivity of Japanese and Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(5), 922–934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Maton, K. I., & Salem, D. A. (1995). Organizational characteristics of empowering community settings: A multiple case study approach. American Journal of Community Psychology, 23(5), 631–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Mausbach, B. T., Patterson, T. L., Rabinowitz, Y. G., Grant, I., & Schulz, R. (2007). Depression and distress predict time to cardiovascular disease in dementia caregivers. Health Psychology, 26(5), 539–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. McAllister, I., & Makkai, T. (2003). Antisocial behaviour among young Australians while under the influence of illicit drugs. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 36(2), 211–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. McFarland, J., Stark, P., and Cui, J. (2016). Trends in High School Dropout and Completion Rates in the United States: 2013 (NCES 2016–117). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from
  154. Mehta, N., & Atreja, A. (2015). Online social support networks. International Review of Psychiatry, 27(2), 118–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Mikulincer, M., & Shaver, P. R. (2001). Attachment theory and intergroup bias: Evidence that priming the secure base schema attenuates negative reactions to out-groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81(1), 97–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Miller, G. E., Chen, E., & Parker, K. J. (2011). Psychological stress in childhood and susceptibility to the chronic diseases of aging: Moving toward a model of behavioral and biological mechanisms. Psychological Bulletin, 137, 959–997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Mittler, P. (2012). Working towards inclusive education: Social contexts. David Fulton Publishers.Google Scholar
  158. Monteith, S., Glenn, T., & Bauer, M. (2013). Searching the internet for health information about bipolar disorder: Some cautionary issues. International Journal of Bipolar Disorders, 1(1), 22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Morling, B., Kitayama, S., & Miyamoto, Y. (2003). American and Japanese women use different coping strategies during normal pregnancy. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29(12), 1533–1546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Muris, P. (2002). Relationships between self-efficacy and symptoms of anxiety disorders and depression in a normal adolescent sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 32(2), 337–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Murray, C., & Greenberg, M. T. (2001). Relationships with teachers and bonds with school: Social emotional adjustment correlates for children with and without disabilities. Psychology in the Schools, 38(1), 25–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Murray, C., & Malmgren, K. (2005). Implementing a teacher–student relationship program in a high-poverty urban school: Effects on social, emotional, and academic adjustment and lessons learned. Journal of School Psychology, 43(2), 137–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Nazroo, J. Y. (1998). Genetic, cultural or socio-economic vulnerability? Explaining ethnic inequalities in health. Sociology of Health & Illness, 20(5), 710–730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Neff, K. D. (2011). Self-compassion, self-esteem, and well-being. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 5(1), 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Neff, L. A., & Karney, B. R. (2005). Gender differences in social support: A question of skill or responsiveness? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88(1), 79–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Nelson, A. M. (2003). Transition to motherhood. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 32(4), 465–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Newth, S., & DeLongis, A. (2004). Individual differences, mood, and coping with chronic pain in rheumatoid arthritis: A daily process analysis. Psychology & Health, 19(3), 283–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Niemiec, C. P., & Ryan, R. M. (2009). Autonomy, competence, and relatedness in the classroom: Applying self-determination theory to educational practice. School Field, 7(2), 133–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Nisbett, R. E., Peng, K., Choi, I., & Norenzayan, A. (2001). Culture and systems of thought: Holistic versus analytic cognition. Psychological Review, 108(2), 291–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Harrell, Z. A. (2002). Rumination, depression, and alcohol use: Tests of gender differences. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 16(4), 391–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Noller, P. (1980). Misunderstandings in marital communication: A study of couples’ nonverbal communication. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39(6), 1135–1148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Nurullah, A. S. (2012). Received and provided social support: A review of current evidence and future directions. American Journal of Health Studies, 27(3), 173–188.Google Scholar
  173. OECD. (2011). Lessons from PISA for the United States, strong performers and successful reformers in education. OECD Publishing. Retrieved from
  174. Park, S., Lavallee, D., & Tod, D. (2013). Athletes’ career transition out of sport: A systematic review. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 6(1), 22–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Parkes, K. R. (1986). Coping in stressful episodes: The role of individual differences, environmental factors, and situational characteristics. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1277–1292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Pascoe, E. A., & Richman, L. S. (2009). Perceived discrimination and health: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 135(4), 531–554.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Phinney, J. S., Madden, T., & Santos, L. J. (1998). Psychological variables as predictors of perceived ethnic discrimination among minority and immigrant adolescents1. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28(11), 937–953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Pierce, G. R., Lakey, B., Sarason, I. G., Sarason, B. R., & Joseph, H. J. (1997). Personality and social support processes. In G. R. In, B. Pierce, & I. G. Sarason Lakey (Eds.), Sourcebook of social support and personality (pp. 3–18). New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Pierce, G. R., Sarason, B. R., & Sarason, I. G. (Eds.). (1996). Handbook of social support and the family. Springer Science & Business Media.Google Scholar
  180. Polanczyk, G. V., Salum, G. A., Sugaya, L. S., Caye, A., & Rohde, L. A. (2015). Annual research review: A meta-analysis of the worldwide prevalence of mental disorders in children and adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 56(3), 345–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Qiu, L., Lin, H., Leung, A. K., & Tov, W. (2012). Putting their best foot forward: Emotional disclosure on Facebook. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15(10), 569–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Raver, C. C., Gershoff, E. T., & Aber, J. L. (2007). Testing equivalence of mediating models on income, parenting, and school readiness for white, black, and Hispanic children in a national sample. Child Development, 78(1), 96–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Ray, E. B., & Miller, K. I. (1994). Social support, home/work stress, and burnout: Who can help? The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 30(3), 357–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Reis, H. T., Clark, M. S., & Holmes, J. G. (2004). Perceived partner responsiveness as an organizing construct in the study of intimacy and closeness. In D. J. Mashek & A. Aron (Eds.), Handbook of closeness and intimacy (pp. 201–225). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  185. Rice, S. M., Goodall, J., Hetrick, S. E., Parker, A. G., Gilbertson, T., Amminger, G. P., … & Alvarez-Jimenez, M. (2014). Online and social networking interventions for the treatment of depression in young people: A systematic review. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 16(9), e206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Rini, C., Schetter, C. D., Hobel, C. J., Glynn, L. M., & Sandman, C. A. (2006). Effective social support: Antecedents and consequences of partner support during pregnancy. Personal Relationships, 13(2), 207–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Roeser, R. W., Eccles, J. S., & Sameroff, A. J. (2000). School as a context of early adolescents’ academic and social-emotional development: A summary of research findings. The Elementary School Journal, 100(5), 443–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Rogers, C. R. (1959). A theory of therapy, personality and interpersonal relationships as developed in the client-centered framework. In S. In & S. Koch (Eds.), Psychology: A study of a science. Vol. 3: Formulations of the person and the social context. New York: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  189. Rogers, C. R. (1961). On becoming a person: A psychotherapist’s view of psychotherapy. London: Constable.Google Scholar
  190. Rosenberg, M., Schooler, C., Schoenbach, C., & Rosenberg, F. (1995). Global self-esteem and specific self-esteem: Different concepts, different outcomes. American Sociological Review, 141–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Rowe, M., Bellamy, C., Baranoski, M., Wieland, M., O’connell, M. J., Benedict, P., … & Sells, D. (2007). A peer-support, group intervention to reduce substance use and criminality among persons with severe mental illness. Psychiatric Services, 58(7), 955–961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Ryan, S. E. (2014). Rethinking gender and identity in energy studies. Energy Research & Social Science, 1, 96–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000a). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000b). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), 54–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annual Review of Psychology, 52(1), 141–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Ryan, R. M., Huta, V., & Deci, E. L. (2008). Living well: A self-determination theory perspective on eudaimonia. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9, 139–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Santiago, C. D., Wadsworth, M. E., & Stump, J. (2011). Socioeconomic status, neighborhood disadvantage, and poverty-related stress: Prospective effects on psychological syndromes among diverse low-income families. Journal of Economic Psychology, 32(2), 218–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Sarason, I. G., Sarason, B. R., & Pierce, G. R. (1990). Social support: The search for theory. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 9, 133–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Scarr, S., & McCartney, K. (1983). How people make their own environments: A theory of genotype → environment effects. Child Development, 54(2), 424–435.Google Scholar
  200. Schlossberg, N. K. (1981). Major contributions. Counseling Psychologist, 9(2), 2–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Schulz, R., Newsom, J., Mittelmark, M., Burton, L., Hirsch, C., & Jackson, S. (1997). Health effects of caregiving: The caregiver health effects study: An ancillary study of the Cardiovascular Health Study. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 19(2), 110–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Schweisfurth, M. (2015). Learner-centred pedagogy: Towards a post-2015 agenda for teaching and learning. International Journal of Educational Development, 40, 259–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Seligman, M. E. (2002). Positive psychology, positive prevention, and positive therapy. Handbook of positive psychology, 2(2002), 3–12.Google Scholar
  204. Seligman, M. (2011). Flourish: A visionary new understanding of happiness and well-being. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  205. Seligman, M. E., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2014). Positive psychology: An introduction. In M. Csikszentmihalyi (Ed.), Flow and the foundations of positive psychology: The collected works of Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi (pp. 279–298). Netherlands: Springer.Google Scholar
  206. Shanks-McElroy, H. A., & Strobino, J. (2001). Male caregivers of spouses with Alzheimer’s disease: Risk factors and health status. American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias, 16(3), 167–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Shaw, W. S., Patterson, T. L., Ziegler, M. G., Dimsdale, J. E., Semple, S. J., & Grant, I. (1999). Accelerated risk of hypertensive blood pressure recordings among Alzheimer caregivers. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 46(3), 215–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Sherman, D. K., Kim, H. S., Pearson, D. M., Kane, H., Guichard, A., & Safarjan, E. (2008). Culture and social support in couples: When social support seekers meet stressed support providers. Manuscript in preparation.Google Scholar
  209. Sherman, D. K., Kim, H. S., & Taylor, S. E. (2009). Culture and social support: Neural bases and biological impact. Progress in Brain Research, 178, 227–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Shettima, A. G. (1998). Gendered work patterns in the endangered Sahelian rural environment: Exploring three layers of exploitation. Africa Development/Afrique et Développement, 22(2), 163–183.Google Scholar
  211. Shrout, P. E., Bolger, N., Iida, M., Burke, C., Gleason, M. E., & Lane, S. P. (2010). The effects of daily support transactions during acute stress: Results from a diary study of bar exam preparation. Support Processes in Intimate Relationships, 175–199.Google Scholar
  212. Shrout, P. E., Herman, C. M., & Bolger, N. (2006). The costs and benefits of practical and emotional support on adjustment: A daily diary study of couples experiencing acute stress. Personal Relationships, 13(1), 115–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Simpson, J. A., Winterheld, H. A., Rholes, W. S., & Oriña, M. M. (2007). Working models of attachment and reactions to different forms of caregiving from romantic partners. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93(3), 466–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Social Care Institute for Excellence, Care Services Improvement Partnership, & Royal College of Psychiatrists. (2007). A common purpose: Recovery in future mental health services. London: SCIE.Google Scholar
  215. Social Welfare Department. (2016). Statistics child abuse, spouse/cohabitant battering and sexual violence cases. Retrieved from
  216. Son, J., Erno, A., Shea, D. G., Femia, E. E., Zarit, S. H., & Stephens, M. A. P. (2007). The caregiver stress process and health outcomes. Journal of Aging and Health, 19(6), 871–887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Stambulova, N. (2003). Symptoms of a crisis-transition: A grounded theory study. In N. Hassmén (Ed.), SIPF Yearbook 2003 (pp. 97–109). Örebro: Örebro University Press.Google Scholar
  218. Storrie, K., Ahern, K., & Tuckett, A. (2010). A systematic review: Students with mental health problems—A growing problem. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 16(1), 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Suitor, J. J., & Pillemer, K. (2000). When experience counts most: Effects of experiential similarity on men’s and women’s receipt of support during bereavement. Social Networks, 22(4), 299–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Suitor, J. J., Pillemer, K., Keeton, S., & Robison, J. (1995). Aged parents and aging children: Determinants of relationship quality. In R. Blieszner & V. H. Bedford (Eds.), Handbook of aging and the family (pp. 223–242). Westport, CT, US: Greenwood Press/Greenwood Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  221. Suls, J., & Martin, R. (2005). The daily life of the garden-variety neurotic: Reactivity, stressor exposure, mood spillover, and maladaptive coping. Journal of Personality, 73(6), 1485–1510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Suurmeijer, T. P., Sonderen, F. V., Krol, B., Doeglas, D. M., Heuvel, W. V. D., & Sanderman, R. (2005). The relationship between personality, supportive transactions and support satisfaction, and mental health of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. Results from the Dutch part of the EURIDISS study. Social Indicators Research, 73(2), 179–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Swann, W. B., Jr., De La Ronde, C., & Hixon, J. G. (1994). Authenticity and positivity strivings in marriage and courtship. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66(5), 857–869.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Swickert, R. (2009). Personality and social support processes. In P. Corr & G. Mattews (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of personality psychology (pp. 524–540). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Swickert, R. J., Hittner, J. B., & Foster, A. (2010). Big Five traits interact to predict perceived social support. Personality and Individual Differences, 48(6), 736–741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Swickert, R., Hittner, J. B., Kitos, N., & Cox-Fuenzalida, L. E. (2004). Direct or indirect, that is the question: A re-evaluation of extraversion’s influence on self-esteem. Personality and Individual Differences, 36(1), 207–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Swickert, R. J., Rosentreter, C. J., Hittner, J. B., & Mushrush, J. E. (2002). Extraversion, social support processes, and stress. Personality and Individual Differences, 32(5), 877–891.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Tamres, L. K., Janicki, D., & Helgeson, V. S. (2002). Sex differences in coping behavior: A meta-analytic review and an examination of relative coping. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 6(1), 2–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Taylor, S. E. (2011). Social support: A review. In H. S. Friedman (Ed.), The handbook of health psychology (pp. 189–214). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  230. Taylor, S. E., Klein, L. C., Lewis, B. P., Gruenewald, T. L., Gurung, R. A., & Updegraff, J. A. (2000). Biobehavioral responses to stress in females: Tend-and-befriend, not fight-or-flight. Psychological Review, 107(3), 411–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Taylor, S. E., Sherman, D. K., Kim, H. S., Jarcho, J., Takagi, K., & Dunagan, M. S. (2004). Culture and social support: Who seeks it and why? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 354–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Taylor, S. E., Welch, W. T., Kim, H. S., & Sherman, D. K. (2007). Cultural differences in the impact of social support on psychological and biological stress responses. Psychological Science, 18(9), 831–837.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Tew, J. (2011). Social approaches to mental distress. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Thoits, P. A. (1995). Stress, coping, and social support processes: Where are we? What next? Journal of Health and Social Behavior, Forty Years of Medical Sociology: The State of the Art and Directions for the Future, 1995, 53–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Thoits, P. A. (2011). Mechanisms linking social ties and support to physical and mental health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 52(2), 145–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Tremblay, R. E. (2000). The development of aggressive behavior during childhood: What have we learned in the past century? International Journal of Behavioral Development, 24, 129–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Turner-McGrievy, G. M., & Tate, D. F. (2013). Weight loss social support in 140 characters or less: Use of an online social network in a remotely delivered weight loss intervention. Translational Behavioral Medicine, 3(3), 287–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Uchino, B. N. (2009). Understanding the links between social support and physical health: A life-span perspective with emphasis on the separability of perceived and received support. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4(3), 236–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Uehara, E. S. (1995). Reciprocity reconsidered: Gouldner’smoral norm of reciprocity’ and social support. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 12(4), 483–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. van Zelst, C. (2009). Stigmatization as an environmental risk in schizophrenia: A user perspective. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 35(2), 293–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Vitaliano, P. P., Zhang, J., & Scanlan, J. M. (2003). Is caregiving hazardous to one’s physical health? A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 129(6), 946–972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Wallace, J. E., & Jovanovic, A. (2011). Occupational similarity and spousal support: A study of the importance of gender and Spouse’s Occupation. Relations Industrielles/Industrial Relations, 66(2), 235–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Walpole, M. (2003). Socioeconomic status and college: How SES affects college experiences and outcomes. The Review of Higher Education, 27(1), 45–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Wampold, B. E. (2001). The great psychotherapy debate: Models, methods, and findings. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  245. Warren, P. L. (2005). First-time mothers: Social support and confidence in infant care. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 50, 479–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Warriner, K., & Lavallee, D. (2008). The retirement experiences of elite female gymnasts: Self-identity and the physical self. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 20(3), 301–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Waterman, A. S. (1993). Two conceptions of happiness: Contrasts of personal expressiveness (eudaimonia) and hedonic enjoyment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64(4), 678–691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Weiss, R. S. (1976). The emotional impact of marital separation. Journal of Social Issues, 32(1), 135–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Wentzel, K. R. (1994). Relations of social goal pursuit to social acceptance, classroom behavior, and perceived social support. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86(2), 173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Wentzel, K. R., Battle, A., Russell, S. L., & Looney, L. B. (2010). Social supports from teachers and peers as predictors of academic and social motivation. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 35(3), 193–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Wheeler, L., Reis, H., & Nezlek, J. B. (1983). Loneliness, social interaction, and sex roles. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45(4), 943–953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. White, W., Boyle, M., & Loveland, D. (2004). Recovery from addiction and recovery from mental illness: Shared and contrasting lessons. In R. Ralph & P. Corrigan (Eds.), Recovery and mental illness: Consumer visions and research paradigms (pp. 233–258). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  253. Wilcox, P., Winn, S., & Fyvie-Gauld, M. (2005). ‘It was nothing to do with the university, it was just the people’: The role of social support in the first-year experience of higher education. Studies in Higher Education, 30(6), 707–722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Wilson, W. R. (1967). Correlates of avowed happiness. Psychological Bulletin, 67(4), 294–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Windle, M. (1992). A longitudinal study of stress buffering for adolescent problem behaviors. Developmental Psychology, 28(3), 522–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. World Health Organization. (1948). WHO definition of health. Retrieved from
  257. Wu, P., Hoven, C. W., Okezie, N., Fuller, C. J., & Cohen, P. (2008). Alcohol abuse and depression in children and adolescents. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, 17(2), 51–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Education University of Hong KongHong KongHong Kong

Personalised recommendations