• Bick-har LAMEmail author


This chapter provides a preview of the content of the book to help readers understand the structure of the book and the concepts discussed in each chapter. It introduces what social support is and why it is selected as the topic of investigation, how social support is related to education, who the target audience is, what the key concepts addressed in the content of the book are, and the background to writing the book. The other six chapters are reviewed at the end of the chapter to highlight the issues addressed in each subsequent chapter while providing an understanding of each chapter to the whole.


  1. Ahmed, W., Minnaert, A., van der Werf, G., & Kuyper, H. (2010). Perceived social support and early adolescents’ achievement: The mediational roles of motivational beliefs and emotions. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39(1), 36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Albrecht, T. L., & Adelman, M. B. (1987). Communicating social support. Thousand Oaks, CA, US: Sage Publications Inc.Google Scholar
  3. Ambrose, S. A., Bridges, M. W., DiPietro, M., Lovett, M. C., & Norman, M. K. (2010). How learning works: Seven research-based principles for smart teaching. USA: Wiley.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, L. W., Krathwohl, D. R., Airasian, P. W., Cruikshank, K. A., Mayer, R. E., Pintrich, P. R., … & Wittrock, M. C. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives, abridged edition. White Plains, NY: Longman.Google Scholar
  5. Arnett, J. J. (2002). The psychology of globalization. American Psychologist, 57(10), 774–783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arun, P., & Chavan, B. (2009). Stress and suicidal ideas in adolescent students in Chandigarh. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences, 63(7), 281–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Asad, E. M. M., & Hassan, R. B. (2013). The characteristics of an ideal technical teacher in this modern era. International Journal of Social Science and Humanities Research, 1(1), 1–6.Google Scholar
  8. Ball, S. J. (2003). The teacher’s soul and the terrors of performativity. Journal of Education Policy, 18(2), 215–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, US: Prentice-Hall Inc.Google Scholar
  10. Barrera, M., Jr., & Ainlay, S. L. (1983). The structure of social support: A conceptual and empirical analysis. Journal of community psychology, 11(2), 133–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bauer, M. A., Wilkie, J. E., Kim, J. K., & Bodenhausen, G. V. (2012). Cuing consumerism: Situational materialism undermines personal and social well-being. Psychological Science, 23(5), 517–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117(3), 497–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Betoret, F. D. (2006). Stressors, self-efficacy, coping resources, and burnout among secondary school teachers in Spain. Educational Psychology, 26(4), 519–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  15. Blossfeld, H. P., Klijzing, E., Mills, M., & Kurz, K. (2005). The losers in a globalizing world: Becoming an adult in uncertain times. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. Borko, H., & Livingston, C. (1989). Cognition and improvisation: Differences in mathematics instruction by expert and novice teachers. American Educational Research Journal, 26(4), 473–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base: Parent–child attachment and healthy human development. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  18. Boxall, M. (2002). Nurture groups in school: Principles & practice. USA: Sage.Google Scholar
  19. Bray, M. (2017). Benefits and tensions of shadow education: Comparative perspectives on the roles and impact of private supplementary tutoring in the lives of Hong Kong students. Journal of International and Comparative Education (JICE), 2, 18–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Caprara, G. V., & Steca, P. (2005). Affective and social self-regulatory efficacy beliefs as determinants of positive thinking and happiness. European Psychologist, 10(4), 275–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Carson, R. L., & Templin, T. J. (2007, April). Emotional regulation and teacher burnout: Who says that the management of emotional expression doesn’t matter. In American Education research association annual convention, Chicago.Google Scholar
  22. Centers for Disease Control. (2013). Make a difference at your school. Chronic Disease. Paper 31. Retrieved from
  23. Chan, K. B., Lai, G., Ko, Y. C., & Boey, K. W. (2000). Work stress among six professional groups: The Singapore experience. Social Science and Medicine, 50(10), 1415–1432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cheng, Y. C. (1999). Recent education developments in South East Asia: An introduction. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 10(1), 3–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cheung, E. & Chiu, P. (2016, March 12). Students at breaking point: Hong Kong announces emergency measures after 22 suicides since the start of the academic year. The South China Morning Post. Retrieved from
  26. Cheung, A. C., & Wong, P. M. (2012). Factors affecting the implementation of curriculum reform in Hong Kong: Key findings from a large-scale survey study. International Journal of Educational Management, 26(1), 39–54.Google Scholar
  27. Chiu, P. (2017, March 21). Testing times for Hong Kong’s controversial exam, despite government awarding itself a pass: Parents fear repetitive drilling exercises will continue and are calling for assessment to be scrapped while planning a citywide boycott. The South China Morning Post. Retrieved from
  28. Choi, P. L., & Tang, S. Y. F. (2009). Teacher commitment trends: Cases of Hong Kong teachers from 1997 to 2007. Teaching and Teacher Education, 25(5), 767–777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Coan, J. A. (2008). Toward a neuroscience of attachment. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (2nd ed., pp. 241–265). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  30. Cohen, S. (2004). Social relationships and health. American Psychologist, 59(8), 676–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Cohen, S., & McKay, G. (1984). Social support, stress and the buffering hypothesis: A theoretical analysis. Handbook of Psychology and Health, 4, 253–267.Google Scholar
  32. Coleman, J. S. (1990). Foundations of social theory. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Durkheim, E. (2013). Durkheim: The rules of sociological method: And selected texts on sociology and its method. Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  34. Education Support Partnership. (2015). 2015 education sector health survey. Retrieved from
  35. Emmer, E. T., & Stough, L. M. (2001). Classroom management: A critical part of educational psychology, with implications for teacher education. Educational Psychologist, 36(2), 103–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Erikson, E. H. (1959). Identity and the life cycle: Selected papers. Oxford, England: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  37. Feeney, B. C., & Collins, N. L. (2015). A new look at social support: A theoretical perspective on thriving through relationships. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 19(2), 113–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Feld, L. D., & Shusterman, A. (2015). Into the pressure cooker: Student stress in college preparatory high schools. Journal of Adolescence, 41, 31–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fredrickson, B. L. (2003). The value of positive emotions: The emerging science of positive psychology is coming to understand why it’s good to feel good. American Scientist, 91(4), 330–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fredricks, J., Blumenfeld, P., Friedel, J., & Paris, A. (2005). School engagement. In K. A. Moore & L. H. Lippman (Eds.), What do children need to flourish? (pp. 305–321). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  41. Gecas, V., & Schwalbe, M. L. (1983). Beyond the looking-glass self: Social structure and efficacy-based self-esteem. Social Psychology Quarterly, 46(2), 77–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Goldsmith, D. J. (2004). Communicating social support. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Guay, S., Billette, V., & Marchand, A. (2006). Exploring the links between posttraumatic stress disorder and social support: Processes and potential research avenues. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 19(3), 327–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hamre, B. K., & Pianta, R. C. (2005). Can instructional and emotional support in the first-grade classroom make a difference for children at risk of school failure? Child Development, 76(5), 949–967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hargreaves, A. (1994). Changing teachers, changing times: Teachers’ work and culture in the postmodern age. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  46. Hargreaves, A. (1998). The emotional practice of teaching. Teaching and Teacher Education, 14(8), 835–854.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hargreaves, A. (1999). The psychic rewards (and annoyances) of teaching. In M. Hammersley (Ed.), Researching school experience: Ethnographic studies of teaching and learning (pp. 85–104). London & New York: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  48. Hargreaves, A. (2000). Mixed emotions: Teachers’ perceptions of their interactions with students. Teaching and Teacher Education, 16(8), 811–826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Haslam, N. (2006). Dehumanization: An integrative review. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 10(3), 252–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hattie, J. (2003, October). Teachers make a difference: What is the research evidence? In Paper presented at the Australian Council for Educational Research Annual Conference on Building Teacher Quality, Melbourne.Google Scholar
  51. Hebson, G., Earnshaw, J., & Marchington, L. (2007). Too emotional to be capable? The changing nature of emotion work in definitions of ‘capable teaching’. Journal of Education Policy, 22(6), 675–694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Helliwell, J. F. (2006). Well-Being, social capital and public policy: What’s new? The Economic Journal, 116, C34–C45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hong Kong Federation of Education Workers. (2015). Teacher well-being survey. Retrieved May 17, 2018, from
  54. Hong Kong Institute of Asia-Pacific Studies. (2016). Survey findings on views on “winning at the starting line” in Hong Kong. Retrieved from
  55. Hong Kong Primary Education Research Association, & Education Convergence. (2006). Education research study on Hong Kong teachers’ stress: Preliminary analysis. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Primary Education Research Association and Education Convergence. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  56. Isenbarger, L., & Zembylas, M. (2006). The emotional labour of caring in teaching. Teaching and Teacher Education, 22(1), 120–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Jang, H., Reeve, J., & Deci, E. L. (2010). Engaging students in learning activities: It is not autonomy support or structure but autonomy support and structure. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(3), 588–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jeffrey, B., & Woods, P. (1996). Feeling deprofessionalised: The social construction of emotions during an OFSTED inspection. Cambridge Journal of Education, 26(3), 325–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R. T., & Smith, K. A. (1991). Cooperative learning: Increasing college faculty instructional productivity. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No.4. Washington, DC: School of Education and Human Development, The George Washington University.Google Scholar
  60. King, R. B., Caleon, I. S., Tan, J. P. L., & Ye, S. (2016). Positive Education in Asia. Asia-Pacific Educational Research, 25(3), 361–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Klem, A. M., & Connell, J. P. (2004). Relationships matter: Linking teacher support to student engagement and achievement. Journal of School Health, 74(7), 262–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kushner, H. I., & Sterk, C. E. (2005). The limits of social capital: Durkheim, suicide, and social cohesion. American Journal of Public Health, 95(7), 1139–1143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lai, K. C., Chan, K. W., Ko, K. W., & So, K. S. (2005). Teaching as a career: A perspective from Hong Kong senior secondary students. Journal of Education for Teaching, 31(3), 153–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lakey, B., & Cohen, S. (2000a). Social support and theory. In S. Cohen, L. G., Unerwood, & B. H. Gottlieb (Eds.), Social support measurement and intervention: A guide for health and social scientists (pp. 29–52). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  65. Lakey, B., & Cohen, S. (2000b). Social support theory and measurement. In S. Cohen, L. Underwood, & B. Gottlieb (Eds.), Measuring and intervening in social support. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  66. Lam, B. H. (2011a). A reflective account of a pre-service teacher’s effort to implement progressive curriculum in field practice. Schools: Studies Education, 8(1), 22–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lam, B. H. (2011b). A reflective account of a preservice teacher’s effort to implement a progressive curriculum in field practice. Schools, 8(1), 22–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lam, B. H. (2011c). The contexts of teaching in the 21st century. In S. N. Phillipson & B. H. Lam (Eds.), Learning and teaching in the Chinese classroom (pp. 1–30). Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.Google Scholar
  69. Lam, B. H. (2012). Why do they want to become teachers? A study on prospective teachers’ motivation to teach in Hong Kong. The Asian Pacific Education Researcher, 21(2), 307–314.Google Scholar
  70. Lam, B. H. (2014). Challenges beginning teachers face. Schools: Studies Education, 11(1), 156–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lam, B. H. (2015). There is no fear in love—The giving of social support to students enhances teachers’ career development. In R. Osbourne (Ed.), Job satisfaction: Determinants, workplace implications and impacts on psychological well-being (pp. 73–96). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers.Google Scholar
  72. Lam, B. H. (2015, June). There is no fear in love: The giving of social support to students enhances teachers’ career development. In Paper presented at the Education and Cognitive Development Lab research seminar series of the National Institute of Education, Singapore.Google Scholar
  73. Lam, B. H. (2017). Positive education and education of Hong Kong. Hong Kong Economic Journal. Retrieved 07-08-2017
  74. Lam, B. H., & Yan, H. F. (2011). Beginning teachers’ job satisfaction: The impact of school-based factors. Teacher Development, 15(3), 333–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Larson, R. W., Wilson, S., Brown, B. B., Furstenberg, F. F., Jr., & Verma, S. (2002). Changes in Adolescents’ Interpersonal Experiences: Are they being prepared for adult relationships in the twenty-first century? Journal of Research on Adolescence, 12(1), 31–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Coping and adaptation. The handbook of behavioral medicine, 282325.Google Scholar
  77. Li, H. C. W., Chan, S. L. P., Chung, O. K. J., & Chui, M. L. M. (2010). Relationships among mental health, self-esteem and physical health in Chinese adolescents: An exploratory study. Journal of Health Psychology, 15(1), 96–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Lin, N. (1999). Social networks and status attainment. Annual review of sociology, 25(1), 467–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lin, N. (2017). Building a network theory of social capital. In Social capital (pp. 3–28). UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  80. Lin, N., Ensel, W. M., Simeone, R. S., & Kuo, W. (1979). Social support, stressful life events, and illness: A model and an empirical test. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 20(2), 108–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Liu, X., & Tein, J. Y. (2005). Life events, psychopathology, and suicidal behavior in Chinese adolescents. Journal of Affective Disorders, 86, 195–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. López, M. L., & Cooper, L. (2011). Social support measures review. National Center for Latino Child & Family Research. Retrieved from
  83. Lortie, D. (1975). Schoolteacher: A sociological analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  84. Martin, A. J., Collie, R. J., & Frydenberg, E. (2017a). Social and emotional learning: Lessons learned and opportunities going forward. In E. Frydenberg, A. J. Martin, & R. J. Collie (Eds.), Social and emotional learning in Australia and the Asia-Pacific: Perspectives, programs and approaches (pp. 459–471). Singapore: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Martin, A. J., Collie, R. J., & Frydenberg, E. (2017b). Social and emotional learning: Lessons learned and opportunities going forward. In E. Frydenberg, A. J. Martin, & R. J. Collie (Eds.), Social and emotional learning in Australia and the Asia-Pacific: Perspectives, programs and approaches (pp. 459–471). Singapore: Springer Singapore.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4), 370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. McCollum, B. D. (2014). The caring beliefs and practices of effective teachers. Electronic Theses & Dissertations, 1186. Retrieved from
  88. McNeil, L. (2002). Contradictions of school reform: Educational costs of standardized testing. UK: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Meyer, D. K., & Turner, J. C. (2006). Re-conceptualizing emotion and motivation to learn in classroom contexts. Educational Psychology Review, 18(4), 377–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Michalos, A. C. (2012). Global report on student well-being: Volume IV: Religion, education, recreation, and health. Berlin: Springer Science & Business Media.Google Scholar
  91. Mills, M., Blossfeld, H. P., & Klijzing, E. (2005). Becoming an adult in uncertain times: A 14-country comparison of the losers of globalization. In H. -P., Blossfeld, E. Kligzing, M. Mills, & K. Kurz (Eds.), Globalization, uncertainty and youth in society (pp. 438–459). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  92. Morrison, B. (2002). Bullying and victimisation in schools: A restorative justice approach. Australian Institute of Criminology: Trends & issues in crime and criminal justice (p. 219). Retrieved from
  93. Mosley, J. (2005). Circle time for young children. USA: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Nicholl, B., & McLellan, R. (2008). ‘We’re all in this game whether we like it or not to get a number of As to Cs’. Design and technology teachers’ struggles to implement creativity and performativity policies. British Educational Research Journal, 34(5), 585–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Nickerson, R. S., Butler, S. F., & Carlin, M. (2009). Empathy and knowledge projection. In J. Decety & W. Ickes (Eds.), The social neuroscience of empathy (pp. 44–56). Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Niemiec, C. P., & Ryan, R. M. (2009). Autonomy, competence, and relatedness in the classroom: Applying self-determination theory to educational practice. School Field, 7(2), 133–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Noddings, N. (2003). Happiness and education. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. O’Connor, K. E. (2008). “You choose to care”: Teachers, emotions and professional identity. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(1), 117–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. O’Donnell, A. M., & O’Kelly, J. (1994). Learning from peers: Beyond the rhetoric of positive results. Educational Psychology Review, 6(4), 321–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Ouweneel, E., Le Blanc, P. M., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2013). Do-it-yourself: An online positive psychology intervention to promote positive emotions, self-efficacy, and engagement at work. Career Development International, 18(2), 173–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Piliavin, J. A., & Siegl, E. (2007). Health benefits of volunteering in the Wisconsin longitudinal study. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 48(4), 450–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Pintrich, P. R. (2002). The role of metacognitive knowledge in learning, teaching, and assessing. Theory into Practice, 41(4), 219–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Polanczyk, G. V., Salum, G. A., Sugaya, L. S., Caye, A., & Rohde, L. A. (2015). Annual Research Review: A meta-analysis of the worldwide prevalence of mental disorders in children and adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 56(3), 345–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Reeve, J., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2004). Self-determination theory: A dialectical framework for understanding socio-cultural influences on student motivation. In D. McInerney & S. Van Etten (Eds.), Big theories revisited: Volume 4 in Research on sociocultural influences on motivation and learning (pp. 31–60). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  105. Reigeluth, C. M. (2013). Instructional-design theories and models: A new paradigm of instructional theory (Vol. II). UK: Routledge.Google Scholar
  106. Reis, H. T., Sheldon, K. M., Gable, S. L., Roscoe, J., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). Daily well-being: The role of autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26(4), 419–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Richardson, V., & Fallona, C. (2001). Classroom management as method and manner. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 33(6), 705–728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Russell, S. L. (2012). Individual-and classroom-level social support and classroom behavior in middle school. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.Google Scholar
  109. Ryan, A. M. (2000). Peer groups as a context for the socialization of adolescents’ motivation, engagement, and achievement in school. Educational Psychologist, 35(2), 101–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annual Review of Psychology, 52(1), 141–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2017). Self-determination theory: Basic psychological needs in motivation, development, and wellness. New York: Guilford Publications.Google Scholar
  112. Sarason, B. R., Sarason, I. G., & Pierce, G. R. (1990a). Traditional views of social support and their impact on assessment. In B. R. Sarason, I. G. Sarason, & G. R. Pierce (Eds.), Wiley series on personality processes. Social support: An interactional view (pp. 9–25). Oxford, England: Wiley.Google Scholar
  113. Sarason, B. R., Sarason, I. G., & Pierce, G. R. (1990b). Social support: An interactional view. New York: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  114. Sarason, I. G., Sarason, B. R., Shearin, E. N., & Pierce, G. R. (1987). A brief measure of social support: Practical and theoretical implications. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 4(4), 497–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Schwartz, C. E., & Sendor, R. M. (1999). Helping others helps oneself: response shift effects in peer support. Social Science and Medicine, 48(11), 1563–1575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Seligman, M. (2011). Flourish: A visionary new understanding of happiness and well-being. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  117. Sharma, S., & Sharma, M. (2010). Globalization, threatened identities, coping and well-being. Psychological Studies, 55(4), 313–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Sherbourne, C. D., & Stewart, A. L. (1991). The MOS social support survey. Social Science & Medicine, 32(6), 705–714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Skinner, E. A., & Belmont, M. J. (1993). Motivation in the classroom: Reciprocal effects of teacher behavior and student engagement across the school year. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85(4), 571–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Slavin, R. E. (1995). Best evidence synthesis: An intelligent alternative to meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 48(1), 9–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Steinhardt, M. A., Smith Jaggars, S. E., Faulk, K. E., & Gloria, C. T. (2011). Chronic work stress and depressive symptoms: Assessing the mediating role of teacher burnout. Stress and Health, 27(5), 420–429.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Storrie, K., Ahern, K., & Tuckett, A. (2010). A systematic review: students with mental health problems—A growing problem. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 16(1), 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Suldo, S. M., Friedrich, A. A., White, T., Farmer, J., Minch, D., & Michalowski, J. (2009). Teacher support and adolescents’ subjective well-being: A mixed-methods investigation. School Psychology Review, 38(1), 67–85.Google Scholar
  124. Suldo, S. M., Shaffer, E. J., & Riley, K. N. (2008). A social-cognitive-behavioral model of academic predictors of adolescents’ life satisfaction. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(1), 56–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Sun, R. C., & Shek, D. T. (2010). Life satisfaction, positive youth development, and problem behaviour among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. Social Indicators Research, 95(3), 455–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Taylor, S. E. (2007). Social support. In H. S. Friedman & R. C. Silver (Eds.), Foundations of health psychology (pp. 145–171). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  127. Teven, J. J., & Hanson, T. L. (2004). The impact of teacher immediacy and perceived caring on teacher competence and trustworthiness. Communication Quarterly, 52(1), 39–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. The Hong Kong institute of Family Education (2013). 虎爸虎媽影響學童發展 [Tiger dad and mom affects student’s development]. Retrieved from
  129. Thoits, P. A. (2011). Mechanisms linking social ties and support to physical and mental health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 52(2), 145–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Twenge, J. M., & Kasser, T. (2013). Generational changes in materialism and work centrality, 1976–2007: Associations with temporal changes in societal insecurity and materialistic role modeling. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39(7), 883–897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Uchino, B. N. (2009). What a lifespan approach might tell us about why distinct measures of social support have differential links to physical health. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 26(1), 53–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Uchino, B. N., Bowen, K., Carlisle, M., & Birmingham, W. (2012). Psychological pathways linking social support to health outcomes: A visit with the “ghosts” of research past, present, and future. Social Science and Medicine, 74(7), 949–957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Vavrus, M. (2008). Culturally responsive teaching. 21st century education: A reference handbook, 2, 49–57. Retrieved from
  134. Vohs, K. D., Mead, N. L., & Goode, M. R. (2006). The psychological consequences of money. Science, 314(5802), 1154–1156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  136. Waterman, A. S. (1993). Two conceptions of happiness: Contrasts of personal expressiveness (eudaimonia) and hedonic enjoyment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64(4), 678–691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Wentzel, K. R. (1994). Relations of social goal pursuit to social acceptance, classroom behavior, and perceived social support. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86(2), 173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Wentzel, K. R. (2009). Peers and academic functioning at school. In K. H. Rubin, W. M. Bukowski, & B. Laursen (Eds.), Social, emotional, and personality development in context. Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups (pp. 531–547). New York, NY, US: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  139. Wilcox, P., Winn, S., & Fyvie-Gauld, M. (2005). ‘It was nothing to do with the university, it was just the people’: the role of social support in the first-year experience of higher education. Studies in Higher Education, 30(6), 707–722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. World Health Organization (2014). Preventing suicide: A global imperative. Retrieved from
  141. World Health Organization (2017 April). Mental disorders fact sheet. Retrieved from

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Education University of Hong KongHong KongHong Kong

Personalised recommendations