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Autoimmune and Infectious Neuropathies

  • Ahmad R. Abuzinadah
  • Christopher H. GibbonsEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Small nerve fibers, either sensory or autonomic, are commonly involved in various immune-mediated and infectious disorders. More than 60% of patients with Sjögren’s disease or systemic lupus erythematosus and a third of patients with sarcoidosis have evidence of small fiber neuropathy on history, examination, or skin biopsy. Patients with antibody-mediated disorders, such as voltage-gated potassium channels, commonly complain of symptoms suggestive of small fiber neuropathy. On physical examination, the presence of non-length-dependent pattern of sensory loss suggests an immune-mediated disorder, while patchy nerve fiber involvement suggests a vasculitic etiology. Infectious disorders such as leprosy, hepatitis C virus, and HIV virus remain common causes of small fiber neuropathy. Therapeutic interventions will focus on treatment of the underlying disease with symptomatic management of the pain and autonomic symptoms.

Keywords

Sjögren’s syndrome Systemic lupus erythematosus Voltage-gated potassium channel Contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) Rheumatoid arthritis Cardiac autonomic neuropathy Sarcoidosis Celiac disease Human immunodeficiency virus Hepatitis C Cryoglobulinemia Varicella zoster virus Leprosy Lyme disease 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Neurology Division, Internal Medicine DepartmentKing Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Neurology Department, Harvard Medical SchoolBeth Israel Deaconess Medical CenterBostonUSA

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