Advertisement

Adjectival Descriptors for Antisocial Personality Trait in Chinese Culture

  • Chu Wang
  • Shaohua Yu
  • Wei WangEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Normal personality traits measured with Chinese adjectives predict personality disorder functioning styles in both normal and personality disorder patients (Chapter “ Personality Disorders Predicted by the Chinese Adjective Descriptors of Personality”), the antisocial personality disorder in reverse, for example, might have trait-related domains which can be measured by Chinese adjectives. In the current Chapter, with lexical approach in two successive studies, we were aiming to identify the antisocial personality traits. In study 1, 48 adjectives from Chinese dictionary were trialed in 301 university students in the four geographical regions of China. Factor analysis yielded three prominent factors namely Intolerant, Assaulting, and Fierce and Malicious. The 10 adjectives with highest loadings for each factor were used to develop a short inventory, the Chinese Adjectival Descriptors for Antisocial Personality Trait (CADAP). In study 2, the 30-adjectives inventory was administered to 448 undergraduate students in the same universities as in study 1. Again, a three-factor structure was obtained. The internal reliabilities were 0.85, 0.81, and 0.81 for Fierce and Malicious, Assaulting, and Intolerant, respectively. The three factors were positively correlated to each other, and males scored significantly higher on Fierce and Malicious and Assaulting than females did. The CADAP might help to characterize the antisocial personality traits uniquely in Chinese culture. Further antisocial-related studies might be conducted in psychiatric/ psychological problems including personality disorders, for opportunities beyond this book.

Keywords

Antisocial personality Collectivism Chinese culture Lexical approach Psychopathy 

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, J. L., Sellbom, M., Wygant, D. B., Salekin, R. T., & Krueger, R. F. (2014). Examining the associations between DSM-5 section III antisocial personality disorder traits and psychopathy in community and university samples. Journal of Personality Disorders, 28, 675–697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Angleitner, A., Ostendorf, F., & John, O. P. (1990). Towards a taxonomy of personality descriptors in German: A psycho-lexical study. European Journal of Personality, 4, 89–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ashton, M. C., & Lee, K. (2005). A defence of the lexical approach to the study of personality structure. European Journal of Personality, 19, 5–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barriga, A. Q., Morrison, E. M., Liau, A. K., & Gibbs, J. C. (2001). Moral cognition: Explaining the gender difference in antisocial behavior. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 47, 532–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blackburn, R., & Fawcett, D. (1999). The Antisocial Personality Questionnaire: An inventory for assessing personality deviation in offender populations. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 15, 14–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boies, K., Lee, K., Ashton, M. C., Pascal, S., & Nicol, A. A. M. (2001). The structure of the French personality lexicon. European Journal of Personality, 15, 277–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Burtaverde, V. (2016). The structure of personality in Romania. A lexical approach. Romanian Journal of Experimental Applied Psychology, 7, 265–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Campbell, A. (2006). Sex differences in direct aggression: What are the psychological mediators? Aggression and Violent Behavior, 11, 237–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Caprara, G. V., & Perugini, M. (1994). Personality described by adjectives: The generalizability of the Big Five to the Italian lexical context. European Journal of Personality, 8, 357–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cheung, F. M., van de Vijver, F. J., & Leong, F. T. (2011). Toward a new approach to the study of personality in culture. American Psychologist, 66, 593–603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Church, A. T. (2016). Personality traits across cultures. Current Opinion in Psychology, 8, 22–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Coid, J., & Ullrich, S. (2010). Antisocial personality disorder is on a continuum with psychopathy. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 51, 426–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cooke, D. J., & Michie, C. (2001). Refining the construct of psychopathy: Towards a hierarchical model. Psychological Assessment, 13, 171–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cooke, D. J., Hart, S. D., Logan, C., & Michie, C. (2012). Explicating the construct of psychopathy: Development and validation of a conceptual model, the comprehensive assessment of psychopathic personality (CAPP). International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 11, 242–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Craig, R. J., & Olson, R. E. (2001). Adjectival descriptions of personality disorders: A convergent validity study of the MCMI-III. Journal of Personality Assessment, 77, 259–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Crocker, A. G., Mueser, K. T., Drake, R. E., Clark, R. E., McHugo, G. J., Ackerson, T. H., & Alterman, A. I. (2005). Antisocial personality, psychopathy, and violence in persons with dual disorders: A longitudinal analysis. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 32, 452–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. de Raad, B. (1992). The replicability of the big five personality dimensions in three word-classes of the Dutch language. European Journal of Personality, 6, 15–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. de Raad, B. (2000). The Big Five Personality Factors: The psycholexical approach to personality. Ashland: Hogrefe and Huber Publishers.Google Scholar
  20. de Raad, B., & Hoskens, M. (1990). Personality-descriptive nouns. European Journal of Personality, 4, 131–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. di Blas, L. (2005). Personality-relevant attribute-nouns: A taxonomic study in the Italian language. European Journal of Personality, 19, 537–557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Frick, P. J., Cornell, A. H., Barry, C. T., Bodin, S. D., & Dane, H. E. (2003). Callous-unemotional traits and conduct problems in the prediction of conduct problem severity, aggression, and self-report of delinquency. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31, 457–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fu, G., Lee, K., Cameron, C. A., & Xu, F. (2001). Chinese and Canadian adults’ categorization and evaluation of lie- and truth-telling about prosocial and antisocial behaviors. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32, 720–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gacono, C. B. (1998). The use of the psychopathy checklist-revised (PCL-R) and rorschach in treatment planning with antisocial personality disordered patients. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 42, 49–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Goldberg, L. R., & Somer, O. (2000). The hierarchical structure of common Turkish person-descriptive adjectives. European Journal of Personality, 14, 497–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hare, R. D. (1991). Manual for the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
  27. Hare, R. D. (2003). The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (2nd ed.). Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
  28. Hare, R. D., & Neumann, C. S. (2005). Structural models of psychopathy. Current Psychiatry Reports, 7, 57–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hare, R. D., & Neumann, C. S. (2006). The PCL-R assessment of psychopathy: Development, structural properties, and new directions. In C. Patrick (Ed.), Handbook of psychopathy (pp. 58–90). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  30. Hare, R. D., & Neumann, C. S. (2008). Psychopathy as a clinical and empirical construct. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 4, 217–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Heidensohn, F. (1997). Gender and crime. In M. Maguire, R. Morgan, & R. Reiner (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of criminology (2nd ed., pp. 761–798). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  32. Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences: International differences in worked related values. Beverly Hills: Sage.Google Scholar
  33. Hsu, S. Y., & Barker, G. G. (2013). Individualism and collectivism in Chinese and American television advertising. International Communication Gazette, 75, 695–714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kennealy, P. J., Skeem, J. L., Walters, G. D., & Camp, J. (2010). Do core interpersonal and affective traits of PCL-R psychopathy interact with antisocial behavior and disinhibition to predict violence? Psychological Assessment, 22, 569–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lau, K. S., & Marsee, M. A. (2013). Exploring narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism in youth: Examination of associations with antisocial behavior and aggression. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 22, 355–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Leahy, D., O’Neill, D., & Hammond, S. (2010). An examination of gender differences in antisocial personality. Personality and Mental Health, 4, 133–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lee, K., Cameron, C. A., Xu, F., Fu, G., & Board, J. (1997). Chinese and Canadian children’s evaluations of lying and truth telling: Similarities and differences in the context of pro-and antisocial behaviors. Child Development, 68, 924–934.Google Scholar
  38. Lee, K., Xu, F., Fu, G., Cameron, C. A., & Chen, S. (2001). Taiwan and Mainland Chinese and Canadian children’s categorization and evaluation of lie- and truth-telling: A modesty effect. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 19, 525–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Li, Y., Wang, M., Wang, C., & Shi, J. (2010). Individualism, collectivism, and Chinese adolescents’ aggression: Intracultural variations. Aggressive Behavior, 36, 187–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lynam, D. R., & Vachon, D. D. (2012). Antisocial personality disorder in DSM-5: Missteps and missed opportunities. Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, 3, 483–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ma, H. K., Shek, D. T., Cheung, P. C., & Lee, R. Y. (1996). The relation of prosocial and antisocial behavior to personality and peer relationships of Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 157, 255–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. McCrae, R. R. (2004). Human nature and culture: A trait perspective. Journal of Research in Personality, 38, 3–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mlačić, B., & Ostendorf, F. (2005). Taxonomy and structure of Croatian personality-descriptive adjectives. European Journal of Personality, 19, 117–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mobarake, R. K. (2015). Age and gender difference in antisocial behavior among adolescents’ school students. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 6, 194–200.Google Scholar
  45. Moran, P. (1999). The epidemiology of antisocial personality disorder. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 34, 231–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Morana, H. C. P., Câmara, F. P., & Arboleda-Flórez, J. (2006). Cluster analysis of a forensic population with antisocial personality disorder regarding PCL-R scores: Differentiation of two patterns of criminal profiles. Forensic Science International, 164, 98–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Piedmont, R. L., & Aycock, W. (2007). An historical analysis of the lexical emergence of the Big Five personality adjective descriptors. Personality and Individual Differences, 42, 1059–1068.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rossier, J., Aluja, A., García, L. F., Angleitner, A., de Pascalis, V., Wang, W., Kuhlman, M., & Zuckerman, M. (2007). The cross-cultural generalizability of Zuckerman’s alternative five-factor model of personality. Journal of Personality Assessment, 89, 188–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Saucier, G. (2018). Culture, morality and individual differences: Comparability and incomparability across species. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 373.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2017.0170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Saucier, G., & Goldberg, L. R. (2001). Lexical studies of indigenous personality factors: Premises, products, and prospects. Journal of Personality, 69, 847–879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Shedler, J., & Westen, D. (2004). Refining personality disorder diagnosis: Integrating science and practice. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 1350–1365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Shepherd, S. M., Campbell, R. E., & Ogloff, J. R. (2018). Psychopathy, antisocial personality disorder, and reconviction in an Australian sample of forensic patients. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 62, 609–628.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Swann, A. C., Lijffijt, M., Lane, S. D., Steinberg, J. L., & Moeller, F. G. (2009). Trait impulsivity and response inhibition in antisocial personality disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 43, 1057–1063.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Szirmák, Z., & de Raad, B. (1994). Taxonomy and structure of Hungarian personality traits. European Journal of Personality, 8, 95–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Tu, Y. T., Lin, S. Y., & Chang, Y. Y. (2011). A cross-cultural comparison by individualism/collectivism among Brazil, Russia, India and China. International Business Research, 4, 175–182.Google Scholar
  56. Verona, E., Patrick, C. J., & Joiner, T. E. (2001). Psychopathy, antisocial personality, and suicide risk. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 462–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Vitacco, M., Neumann, C. S., Robertson, A., & Durrant, S. (2002). Contributions of impulsivity and callousness in the assessment of adjudicated male adolescents: A prospective study. Journal of Personality Assessment, 78, 87–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wang, G., & Liu, Z. B. (2010). What collective? Collectivism and relationalism from a Chinese perspective. Chinese Journal of Communication, 3, 42–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Whitmore, J. M., Shore, W. J., & Smith, P. H. (2004). Partial knowledge of word meanings: Thematic and taxonomic representations. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 33, 137–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wilson, D. S., Near, D., & Miller, R. R. (1996). Machiavellianism: A synthesis of the evolutionary and psychological literatures. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 285–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Yu, R., Yu, S., Liu, Y., Chen, W., Shen, M., Wang, D., & Wang, W. (2009). Adjectival descriptors for antisocial personality trait in Chinese university students. Journal of Personality Disorders, 23, 661–668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry/School of Public HealthZhejiang University College of MedicineHangzhouChina
  2. 2.Department of Psychiatry, The Second Affiliated HospitalZhejiang University College of MedicineHangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations