Advertisement

Chinese Family Contributions to Psychological Disorders

  • Hongying Fan
  • You Xu
  • Wei WangEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Family plays an important role in the psychological world of an individual, and is especially related to personality disorders (see Chapter “ Narrations of Personality Disorders in A Dream of Red Mansions”) and bipolar disorder (see Chapters “ Bipolar Disorders in Chinese Culture: From a Perspective of Harmony” and “ Predicting Affective States of Bipolar Disorder by the Chinese Adjective Descriptors of Personality”). Thus, in this chapter, we would like to discuss the relationship between family and the psychological disorders in the context of Chinese culture. Family in general refers to the group comprising parents and children. It functions as a system to satisfy the different needs of family members, regulate sexual behaviors, support education/socialization, affection, and provide protection. Taking Chinese culture into account, Chinese family exhibits some distinguishing features. Although the culture provides Chinese family with help for functioning smoothly, it cannot satisfy all the needs of the members, therefore psychological problems occur afterwards. In contemporary China, traditional culture, especially Confucianism, still occupies a vital position in people’s value, therefore the intersection of family, culture, and psychological disorders still needs to be further investigated in the society.

Keywords

Behavioral and psychological disorders Chinese culture Confucianism Family function Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory 

References

  1. Akubue, F. N., & Okolo, A. N. (2008). Sociology of education. Nsukka: Great A. P. Express Publishers.Google Scholar
  2. Alexander, B., Brewin, C. R., Vearnals, S., Wolff, G., & Leff, J. (1999). An investigation of shame and guilt in a depressed sample. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 72, 323–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anastasiu, I. (2012). The social functions of the family. Euromentor Journal – Studies About Education, 3, 133–139.Google Scholar
  4. Argyle, M., Henderson, M., Bond, M., Iizuka, Y., & Contarello, A. (1986). Cross-cultural variation in relationship rules. International Journal of Psychology, 21, 287–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barraclough, B., Bunch, J., Nelson, B., & Sainsbury, P. (1974). A hundred cases of suicide: Clinical aspects. British Journal of Psychiatry, 125, 355–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berutti, M., Dias, R. S., Pereira, V. A., Lafer, B., & Nery, F. G. (2016). Association between history of suicide attempts and family functioning in bipolar disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 192, 28–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bond, M. H., & Hwang, K. (1986). The social psychology of Chinese people. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 11, 212–214.Google Scholar
  8. Caplan, G. (1976). The family as a social support system. In G. Caplan, M. Killilea, & R. B. Abrahams (Eds.), Social systems and mutual help: Multidisciplinary explorations. New York: Grune and Stratton.Google Scholar
  9. Chan, K. H., Lew, A. Y., & Tong, M. Y. J. W. (2001). Accounting and management controls in the classical Chinese novel: A Dream of the Red Mansions. International Journal of Accounting, 36, 311–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chao, R. K. (1994). Beyond parental control and authoritarian parenting style: Understanding Chinese parenting through the cultural notion of training. Child Development, 65, 1111–1119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chen, G. M. (1995). Differences in self-disclosure patterns among Americans versus Chinese: A comparative study. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 26, 84–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chen, X., Liu, M., & Li, D. (2000). Parental warmth, control, and indulgence and their relations to adjustment in Chinese children: A longitudinal study. Journal of Family Psychology, 14, 401–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chia, R. C., Moore, J. L., Lam, K. N., Chuang, C. J., & Cheng, B. S. (1994). Cultural differences in gender role attitudes between Chinese and American students. Sex Roles, 31, 23–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chia, R. C., Allred, L. J., & Jerzak, P. A. (1997). Attitudes toward women in Taiwan and China. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 137–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chiu, M. L., Feldman, S. S., & Rosenthal, D. A. (1992). The influence of immigration on parental behavior and adolescent distress in Chinese families residing in two Western nations. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 2, 205–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Das, S. (2016). Introduction to community nutrition. Textbook of community nutrition (Rev. 2nd ed., pp. 1–8). Kolkata: Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  17. Dion, K. K., & Dion, K. L. (1993). Individualistic and collectivistic perspectives on gender and the cultural context of love and intimacy. Journal of Social Issues, 49, 53–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Doob, C. B. (1997). Sociology: An introduction (5th ed.). New York: The Harcourt Press.Google Scholar
  19. Duvall, E. M. (1957). Family development. Oxford: Lippincott.Google Scholar
  20. Eagly, A. H., & Wood, W. (1999). The origins of sex differences in human behavior: Evolved dispositions versus social roles. American Psychologist, 54, 408–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Epstein, N. B., & Bishop, D. S. (1983). McMaster family assessment device. Journal of Family Therapy, 9, 171–180.Google Scholar
  22. Epstein, N. B., Bishop, D. S., & Baldwin, L. M. (1981). McMaster Model of Family Functioning: A view of the normal family. In F. Walsh (Ed.), Normal family processes. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  23. Faure, G. O., & Fang, T. (2008). Changing Chinese values: Keeping up with paradoxes. International Business Review, 17, 194–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gao, G. (2001). Intimacy, passion, and commitment in Chinese and US American romantic relationships. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 25, 329–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Goode, W. J. (1964). The family (p. 2). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  26. Goodwin, R., & Lee, I. (1994). Taboo topics among Chinese and English friends. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 25, 325–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gudykunst, W. B., & Matsumoto, Y. (1996). Cross-cultural variability of communication in personal relationships. In W. B. Gudykunst, S. Ting-Toomey, & T. Nishida (Eds.), Communication in personal relationships across cultures (pp. 19–56). Thousand Oaks: SAGE.Google Scholar
  28. Hamilton, M. (1960). A rating scale for depression. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 23, 56–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hao, Y. (1999). From rule of man to rule of law: An unintended consequence of corruption in China in the 1990s. Journal of Contemporary China, 8, 405–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Heine, S. J. (2001). Self as cultural product: An examination of East Asian and North American selves. Journal of Personality, 69, 881–906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Higgins, L. T., Zheng, M., Liu, Y., & Sun, C. H. (2002). Attitudes to marriage and sexual behaviors: A survey of gender and culture differences in China and United Kingdom. Sex Roles, 46, 75–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ho, D. Y. F. (1987). Fatherhood in Chinese culture. In M. E. Lamb (Ed.), The father’s role: Cross-cultural perspectives (pp. 227–245). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  33. Hofmann, W., Kotabe, H. P., Vohs, K. D., & Baumeister, R. F. (2015). Desire and desire regulation. In W. Hofmann & L. F. Nordgren (Eds.), The psychology of desire (Chap. 3) (pp. 61–81). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  34. Holman, T. B., & Epperson, A. (1984). Family and leisure: A review of the literature with research recommendations. Journal of Leisure Research, 16, 277–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hong, Y., & Li, X. (2008). Behavioral studies of female sex workers in China: A literature review and recommendation for future research. AIDS and Behavior, 12, 623–636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hsu, F. L. K. (1985). The self in cross-cultural perspective. In A. J. Marsella, G. DeVos, & F. L. K. Hsu (Eds.), Culture and self: Asian and western perspectives (pp. 24–55). London: Tavistock.Google Scholar
  37. Jenco, L. K. (2010). “Rule by man” and “rule by law” in early Republican China: Contributions to a theoretical debate. Journal of Asian Studies, 69, 181–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kendall, P. C. (2011). Guiding theory for therapy with children and adolescents. In P. C. Kendall (Ed.), Child and adolescent therapy: Cognitive-behavioral procedures (4th ed., pp. 3–24). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  39. Kendall, P. C., & Ingram, R. E. (1989). Cognitive-behavioural perspectives: Theory and research on depression and anxiety. In P. C. Kendall & D. Watson (Eds.), Anxiety and depression: Distinctive and overlapping features (xviii) (pp. 27–53). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  40. Kim, S., Thibodeau, R., & Jorgensen, R. S. (2011). Shame, guilt, and depressive symptoms: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 137, 68–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lai, K. W., & McBride-Chang, C. (2001). Suicidal ideation, parenting style, and family climate among Hong Kong adolescents. International Journal of Psychology, 36, 81–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lang, O. (1946). Chinese family and society. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Lebra, T. S. (1976). Japanese patterns of behavior. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
  44. Levy, M. J., Jr. (1949). The family revolution in modern China. Oxford: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Li, H. (2005). How grandparents educated children in three-generation family. Preschool Research, 6, 28–30 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  46. Lim, S. L., & Lim, B. K. (2004). Parenting style and child outcomes in Chinese and immigrant Chinese families-current findings and cross-cultural considerations in conceptualization and research. Marriage and Family Review, 35, 21–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Liu, J., Li, L., & Fang, F. (2011). Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Parental Bonding Instrument. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 48, 582–589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lu, L. (2004). Advantage and disadvantage for grandparents caring Child. Family Education (China), 10, 6–8 (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  49. MacIver, R. M., & Page, C. H. (1959). The family. In Society: An introductory analysis (pp. 238–280). London: MacMillan.Google Scholar
  50. Mancoske, R. J. (2014). The changing family and family policy. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 8, 174–193.Google Scholar
  51. Mansfield, A. K., Keitner, G. I., & Dealy, J. (2015). The family assessment device: An update. Family Process, 54, 82–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98, 224–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Maslow, A. H. (1970). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  54. Meston, C. M., Trapnell, P. D., & Gorzalka, B. B. (1996). Ethnic and gender differences in sexuality: Variations in sexual behavior between Asian and non-Asian university students. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 25, 33–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Miller, I. W., Epstein, N. B., Bishop, D. S., & Keitner, G. I. (1985). The McMaster family assessment device: Reliability and validity. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 11, 345–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Murdock, G. P. (1949). Social structure. New York: MacMillan.Google Scholar
  57. Parker, G., Tupling, H., & Brown, L. B. (1979). A parental bonding instrument. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 52, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Pye, L. W. (1972). China: An introduction (2nd ed.). Boston: Little Brown.Google Scholar
  59. Rachman, S. (1993). Obsessions, responsibility and guilt. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 31, 149–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Reinares, M., Bonnín, C. M., Hidalgo-Mazzei, D., Colom, F., Solé, B., Jiménez, E., Torrent, C., Comes, M., Martínez-Arán, A., Sánchez-Moreno, J., & Vieta, E. (2016). Family functioning in bipolar disorder: Characteristics, congruity between patients and relatives, and clinical correlates. Psychiatry Research, 245, 66–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Scott, W. A., & Scott, R. (1989). Adaptation of immigrants: Individual differences and determinants. Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  62. Shek, D. T., & Chan, L. K. (1999). Hong Kong Chinese parents’ perceptions of the ideal child. Journal of Psychology, 133, 291–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Skinner, K. B., & Crane, D. R. (1999). Associations between parenting, acculturation, and adolescent functioning among Chinese in North America. Poster session presented at the 61st annual conference of the National Council on Family Relations, Irvine; November 12–15, 1999.Google Scholar
  64. Skinner, H., Steinhauer, P., & Sitarenios, G. (2000). Family Assessment Measure (FAM) and process model of family functioning. Journal of Family Therapy, 22, 190–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Smith, R. H., Webster, J. M., Parrott, W. G., & Eyre, H. L. (2002). The role of public exposure in moral and nonmoral shame and guilt. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 138–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. So, H. W., & Cheung, F. M. (2005). Review of Chinese sex attitudes and applicability of sex therapy for Chinese couples with sexual dysfunction. Journal of Sex Research, 42, 93–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Suen, L. C. (1983). The underlying structure of Chinese civilization [Zhong-guo-wen-hua-di-shen-ceng-jie-gou]. Hong Kong: Yi Shan Publication (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  68. Tang, C. S. K. (1999). Wife abuse in Hong Kong Chinese families: A community survey. Journal of Family Violence, 14, 173–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Tang, T. N., & Tang, C. S. (2001). Gender role internalization, multiple roles, and Chinese women’s mental health. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 25, 181–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Triandis, H. C., Bontempo, R., Villareal, M. J., Asai, M., & Lucca, N. (1988). Individualism and collectivism: Cross-cultural perspectives on self-ingroup relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 323–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tseng, W. S., & Hsu, J. (1970). Chinese culture, personality formation and mental illness. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 16, 5–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Tsui, M. (1989). Changes in Chinese urban family structure. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 51, 737–747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wagner, B. M., Cohen, P., & Brook, J. S. (1996). Parent/adolescent relationships: Moderators of the effects of stressful life events. Journal of Adolescent Research, 11, 347–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wegner, D. M. (1994). Ironic processes of mental control. Psychological Review, 101, 34–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Xu, K., Chen, L., Fu, L., Xu, S., Fan, H., Gao, Q., Xu, Y., & Wang, W. (2016). Stressful parental-bonding exaggerates the functional and emotional disturbances of primary dysmenorrhea. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 23, 458–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Young, K. (1939). The family and its institutions. An introductory sociology (Rev. Ed., xxv, pp. 215–230). New York: American Book Company.Google Scholar
  77. Zuo, J. (2003). From revolutionary comrades to gendered partners: Marital construction of breadwinning in post-Mao urban China. Journal of Family Issues, 24, 314–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry/School of Public HealthZhejiang University College of MedicineHangzhouChina
  2. 2.Department of Sleep Medicine, the Seventh Hospital of Hangzhou, and Mental Health CenterZhejiang University College of MedicineHangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations