The introduction problematises sexuality in the field of hip-hop by pointing out that as a form of popular music not only is hip-hop predominantly heteronormative in content, it also carries the burden of representing a unified notion of blackness that mandates the behavioural congruence between masculinity and heterosexuality for black men. Unlike music genres where neither disclosure of homosexuality nor same-sex themed lyrics is detrimental to an artist’s career, hip-hop is yet to embrace rappers who romanticise same-sex love or protest against homophobic rap icons. In response, this book aims to demonstrate, by analysing the stories and songs of several out black rappers, how combining masculinity and homosexuality in music brings about a unique form of power that challenges the very root of hetero-patriarchy.
- Biddle, Ian, and Freya Jarman-Ivens. “Introduction: Oh Boy! Making Masculinity in Popular Music.” In Oh Boy! Masculinities and Popular Music, by Freya Jarman-Ivens (ed.), 1–20. New York: Routledge, 2007.Google Scholar
- Butler, Paul. “Much Respect: Toward a Hip Hop Theory of Punishment.” Stanford Law Review, Vol. 56, No. 5, 2004: pp. 983–1016.Google Scholar
- Cheney, Charise L. Brothers Gonna Work It Out: Sexual Politics in the Golden Age of Rap Nationalism. New York: New York University Press, 2005.Google Scholar
- Collins, Patricia Hill. From Black Power to Hip Hop: Racism, Nationalism, and Feminism. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2006.Google Scholar
- Ferguson, Roderick A. Aberrations in Black: Toward a Queer of Colour Critique. Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press, 2004.Google Scholar
- Foucault, Michel. The History of Sexuality, Volume 1, the Will to Knowledge (Translated by Robert Hurley). London: Penguin Books, 1979 (1990).Google Scholar
- Frith, Simon. “Words and Music: Why Do Songs Have Words?” In Lost in Music: Culture, Style and the Musical Event, by Avron Levine White (ed.), 77–106. London and New York: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1987.Google Scholar
- Hanisch, Carol. “The Personal Is Political.” In Notes from the Second Year: Women’s Liberation: Major Writings of the Radical Feminists, by Shulamith Firestone, and Anne Koedt (eds.). New York: Radical Feminism, 1970.Google Scholar
- Hess, Mickey. Is Hip Hop Dead? The Past, the Present, and the Future of America’s Most Wanted Music. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2007.Google Scholar
- Hubbs, Nadine. Queer composition of America’s Sound. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004.Google Scholar
- Johansson, Moa. Werkin’ Girls—A Critical Viewing of Femininity Construction in Contemporary Rap. Unpublished Thesis, Södertörn University, 2013.Google Scholar
- Kim, Daniel Y. Writing Manhood in Black and Yellow. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2005.Google Scholar
- LaBoskey, Sara. “Getting Off: Portrayals in Hip Hop Dance in Film.” Dance Research Journal, Vol. 33, No. 2, Social and Popular Dance, 2001: pp. 112–120.Google Scholar
- Levine, Nick. “Chuck D: ‘Ocean’s Sexuality Statement Is No Hip-Hop First’.” In NME (July 7, 2012). From https://www.nme.com/news/music/frank-ocean-118-1269812#YGim0isJJ3rvgdLI.99. Retrieved 17/06/2014.
- Lynskey, Dorian. “Mykki Blanco: ‘I Didn’t Want to Be a Rapper. I Wanted to be Yoko Ono.” In The Guardian (September 15, 2016). From https://www.theguardian.com/music/2016/sep/15/mykki-blanco-i-didnt-want-to-be-a-rapper-i-wanted-to-be-yoko-ono. Retrieved 09/07/2017.
- McClary, Susan. Feminine Endings: Music, Gender, and Sexuality. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1991.Google Scholar
- Ogbar, Jeffery Ogbonna Green. Hip-Hop Revolution: The Culture and Politics of Rap. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2007.Google Scholar
- Pough, Gwendolyn D. Check It While I Wreck It: Black Womanhood, Hip-Hop Culture, and the Public Sphere. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 2004.Google Scholar
- Richardson, Jeanita W., and Kim A. Scott. “Rap Music and Its Violent Progeny: America’s Culture of Violence in Context.” The Journal of Negro Education, Vol. 71, No. 3, Juvenile Justice: Children of Colour in the United States, 2002: pp. 175–192.Google Scholar
- Richardson, Riché. Black Masculinity and the U.S. South: From Uncle Tom to Gangsta. Athens and London: The University of Georgia Press, 2007.Google Scholar
- Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky. The Epistemology of the Closet. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.Google Scholar
- Whiteley, Sheila, and Jennifer Rycenga (eds.). Queering the Popular Pitch. Routledge, 2006.Google Scholar