Collaboration Science in the Age of Digitalization

  • Masayuki MatsuiEmail author
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Business book series (BRIEFSBUSINESS)


Artifacts bodies and its science are known as the theory of 3M&I bodies, which consist of human, material/machine, monetary, and informational components. For multi-body systems, the former chapter, Sect.  2.1, discusses and develops the scientific and economic fundamentals using Follett-like classification with domination, compromise, integration, and sharing in two-center conflict outcomes (1983). The mathematical view is based on Venn diagrams, the physical view is based on the principle of a lever as explained by Archimedes, and the economical view is based on profit (specific gravity) and Matsui’s equation. Based on these, it is observed that integration pursues maximization of intersection (compromise) in the two-center, whereas sharing pursues minimization of intersection (compromise) in the field. When the marginal (equivalently, maximal) profit is equal, both are pointed out to be similar in a dual of classical Nash’s solution. This property gives visibility and equilibrium to a two-center problem with pair-map in the broad sense, and would contribute to the advancement of digital society and its visibility and harmony in integration versus sharing. In an increasingly ICT society, the concept of traditional collaboration that is known by Herbert Simon’s behavioral approach has been recently redefined and adapted to digital collaboration, and would help the visualization and realization of artifacts collaboration. The latter chapter, Sect.  2.2, treats a systematic matrix (white-box) framework for the coordination problem of functions and roles in a collaborative organization, which is a broader network of 3M&I elements and the ultimate subject of the 3M&I-artifacts system. The sophisticated (matrix) approach is a white-box (Haiku-like) method given by Matsui’s ME (SMDP/PDCA), and regards the system of collaboration as being composed of “matrix (skeleton) × communication (message)” processes that move from problem-solving toward goal-seeking in an organization. The dual relation of functions versus roles (Nash’s solution) would be useful for goal-seeking organizational collaboration, and the algorithms and AI-logic of the Big Data world.


Artifacts body Analog versus digital collaboration Sharing versus integration Lever/gravity rule Duality Smart (matrix) approach 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Institute for EngineeringKanagawa UniversityYokohamaJapan
  2. 2.The University of Electro-CommunicationsTokyoJapan

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