Simulation Training of Laparoscopy

  • Kazuhide MakiyamaEmail author


Simulators are often used as educational tools for training surgeons in laparoscopic procedures. Some surgical simulators have been proven to shorten clinical learning curves, and it was demonstrated that techniques learnt by using a simulator can be brought into the operation room. Laparoscopic surgical simulators can be classified into box and virtual reality type. Box-type simulators are cheaper and have a superior array of surgical tools. By using box trainers, trainees are able to use and become familiar with real surgical tools. Box trainers are perfectly suited for learning suturing and knot tying. Virtual reality simulators are generally more expensive than box trainers. The main advantage of virtual reality simulators is that every movement of the forceps is recordable in virtual space. Thus, the recorded data can be analyzed, and trainees’ skills can be assessed objectively. Patient-specific simulators represent a new technological advancement. They provide patient-specific training, in which patients’ three-dimensional imaging data are used to create virtual reality simulations.

It is necessary to evaluate the usefulness and adequacy of laparoscopic simulators. There are several ways to validate laparoscopic simulators, including both subjective and objective methods. Subjective simulator evaluations assess face and content validity, whereas quantitative evaluations examine construct, concurrent, and predictive validity.


Simulator Laparoscopy Training 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of UrologyYokohama City University Graduate School of MedicineYokohamaJapan

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