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Cyanobacteria: The Eco-Friendly Tool for the Treatment of Industrial Wastewaters

  • Sharma Mona
  • Virendra Kumar
  • Bansal Deepak
  • Anubha Kaushik
Chapter

Abstract

As the earth’s human population has increased, an enormous industrial growth has taken place throughout the world. Industry is the most flagrant abuser of water quality. It discharges polluted water having the pollution strength of at least double the sewage of all municipalities combined. Industrial effluents are the most important sources of toxic contaminants in any environment. Discharge of untreated industrial wastewater into aquatic bodies is posing a serious threat to the water resources. It should be treated before discharge into the natural water bodies. Recently, there has been increasing interest in cyanobacteria for the treatment of industrial wastewater (phycoremediation) since they possess many advantages over other microorganisms. Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophic in nature and have the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen enabling them to be productive. In this way cyanobacteria are inexpensive; they can maintain their growth without the addition of nutrients. They are known to inhabit in various aquatic and highly polluted environment and acquired natural resistance against environmental pollutants. Cyanobacteria are efficient in the assimilation of organic matter and have high biodegradation, transformation, and biosorption capability of pollutants present in industrial wastewater. In addition, cyanobacteria have a great potential as a source of biofuels, bio-fertilizers, animal feed, polysaccharide production, etc. which makes them a viable and sustainable approach for the treatment of industrial wastewater and can be improved through genetic engineering technologies. This chapter represents the biodiversity of cyanobacteria and their potential application for the removal of heavy metals, dyes, crude oil, and pesticides from the wastewaters of different industries followed by a critical overview of their utilization, suitability, biomass production, and potential in bioremediation of industrial wastewater.

Keywords

Phycoremediation Biosorption Cyanobacteria Industrial wastewaters 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sharma Mona
    • 1
    • 2
  • Virendra Kumar
    • 1
  • Bansal Deepak
    • 3
  • Anubha Kaushik
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Environmental SciencesCentral University of HaryanaPaliIndia
  2. 2.Department of Environmental Science and EngineeringGuru Jambheshwar University of Science & TechnologyHisarIndia
  3. 3.JBM GroupGurugramIndia
  4. 4.University School of Environment Management (USEM)Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha UniversityNew DelhiIndia

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