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Co-Existing Hypertension in Neurosurgery

  • Ramamani MariappanEmail author
  • Rajasekar Arumugam
Chapter

Abstract

Hypertension is a common medical problem which affects almost all organs in the body. Among which, the brain is the major target organ for the adverse effects of untreated hypertension followed by the cardiovascular and renal system. It is a major risk factor for stroke and its related morbidity and also a powerful risk factor for cognitive decline, dementia, and Alzheimer’s disease. Perioperative hypertension is a common event in neurosurgical population due to the activation of sympathetic nervous system activity, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone activity, and interaction between the heart and brain which increases the perioperative morbidity and mortality. The presence of pre-existing hypertension is one of the major risk factors for the development of a postoperative hematoma after craniotomy. Congenital variation in the circle of Willis and vertebral artery leading to medullary ischemia is considered to be the cause for the development of essential hypertension. Pulsatile compression of vessels on the brain stem and cranial nerves can cause neurogenic hypertension. In this chapter, classification of hypertension and its causes, pathophysiology, the brain-heart interaction, preoperative evaluation, various causes of perioperative hypertension, and its management are discussed in detail.

Keywords

Hypertension in neurosurgery Neurogenic hypertension Cerebrovascular remodeling Cerebral autoregulation Brain-heart interaction Preoperative evaluation Perioperative hypertension and its management 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnaesthesiaChristian Medical College VelloreVelloreIndia
  2. 2.Surgical Intensive Care UnitChristian Medical College VelloreVelloreIndia

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