Thermally Assisted Microcutting of Calcium Fluoride Single Crystals

  • Yan Jin Lee
  • Akshay Chaudhari
  • Jiong Zhang
  • Hao WangEmail author
Part of the Springer Tracts in Mechanical Engineering book series (STME)


Optical materials, such as calcium fluoride single crystals, are widely used across various industries for their light transmission capabilities. These materials possess excellent mechanical, physical, and chemical resistant properties but also tend to be very brittle, which poses a challenge to the microcutting of complex freeform shapes with optical surface quality. Ultraprecision single-point diamond turning is commonly used in ductile-regime machining of hard and brittle materials, and polishing is employed as a secondary process to achieve optical quality surfaces, which can be time consuming. To improve the machining efficiency of high-strength materials, hot machining techniques have been developed to improve workpiece plasticity and surface integrity after machining. Surface quality and subsurface damage evaluation of the machined material along with finite element analysis allow a deeper understanding of the effectiveness in heat-assisted machining. In this chapter, an introduction to ultraprecision single-point diamond turning and the fundamentals of ductile-regime machining of hard and brittle materials will be discussed, followed by its application in fabrication of calcium fluoride single crystal lenses. Subsequently, the anisotropic characteristics of calcium fluoride single crystal will be investigated through experimentally validated crack formation models and surface generation morphology to gain detailed appreciation of the challenges faced during production of brittle single-crystal materials. To conclude the chapter, the effects of elevated temperatures on the material properties and machinability will be evaluated using experimental and numerical solutions.



The authors are grateful for the financial support from National University of Singapore Start-up Grant (Grant No.: R-265-000-564-133) and Singapore Ministry of Education Academic Research Fund Tier 1 (Grant No.: R-265-000-593-114).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yan Jin Lee
    • 1
  • Akshay Chaudhari
    • 1
  • Jiong Zhang
    • 1
  • Hao Wang
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore

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