Medical Imaging Informatics: An Overview
Imaging informatics (II) has replaced the term medical imaging informatics (MI) and is now commonplace in the imaging community. The Society of Imaging Informatics in Medicine (SIIM) states that the “science of imaging informatics is the study and application of processes of information and communications technology for the acquisition, manipulation, analysis, and distribution of image data.” This chapter describes the essential technologies such as the fundamentals of computers and communication technologies that are the building blocks for an understanding of II. In addition, relevant elements of the picture archiving and communication systems (PACS), the radiology information system (RIS), and the electronic health record (EHR) are highlighted in terms of definitions and components. Furthermore, an overview of system integration and information technology security is provided. Finally, emerging topics of II such as cloud computing, Big Data, artificial intelligence, machine learning, and deep learning are briefly described. Since the latter four topics, Big Data, artificial intelligence, machine learning, and deep learning, are in their infancy in terms of development and implementation, major definitions of each have been quoted from the experts, so as not to detract from the original meaning.
AI is the “effort to automate intellectual tasks normally performed by humans.”
Machine learning is “a set of methods that automatically detect patterns in data, and then utilize the uncovered patterns to predict future data or enable decision making under uncertain conditions.”
Deep learning algorithms are “characterized by the use of neural networks with many layers.”
As these emerging topics in imaging informatics evolve, they will gain acceptance and become useful tools in medical imaging technologies.
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