• Faris Al-Fadhat
Part of the Critical Studies of the Asia-Pacific book series (CSAP)


This chapter provides the conclusion of the book by answering the question “How do we understand the tentative steps toward regional integration?” The core argument of the book is that beneath the recent intensification of regional economic cooperation in ASEAN lies a set of social forces that have shaped the political economies of Indonesia, and Southeast Asia in general, over more than three decades. These social forces have emerged out the internationalization of capital—where corporate profit-making activities operate beyond territorial boundaries—that has subsequently transformed national political institutions and internationalized parts of the state policy-making apparatus. It is this twin process of internationalization of capital and state that has underpinned the various projects of regional economic integration.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Faris Al-Fadhat
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of International RelationsUniversitas Muhammadiyah YogyakartaBantulIndonesia

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