A PID Load Frequency Controller Design via Pole Placement and Approximate Frequency Response Matching

  • Anand KumarEmail author
  • Md Nishat Anwar
  • Ashraf Raza
Conference paper


The performance deterioration may occur in the large-scale modern power system due to a sudden change in load and the variations in system parameter. Due to this reason, modern control design technique of power system plays a significant role in load frequency control (LFC). In this paper, PID load frequency controller design via pole placement and approximate frequency response matching for single-area and two-area power systems has been proposed to retain frequency deviation error and tie-line power exchange between the areas within nominal specified limits. The generation rate constraint (GRC) has been used as nonlinearity in the proposed design method, and its limitation is overcome by anti-GRC scheme. Different cases of power system are simulated and compared with the other well-known methods, to show the supremacy of the proposed design method.


LFC PID controller Pole placement technique Frequency response matching 



The authors acknowledge the financial support from the Department of Science and Technology, India (under project grant no. ECR/16/001547) at NIT Patna, India.


  1. 1.
    Kundur P. (1994) New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Saxena S, Hote YV (2013) IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 2749–2757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bevrani H, Hiyama T (2009) IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 292–300.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Seborg DE, Edgar TF, Mellichamp D A. John Wiley & Sons: New York, 1989.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Astrom, K. J.; Hagglund, T. 2nd ed.; Instrument Society of America: Research Triangle Park, NC, 1995.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chen D, Seborg DE. Ind Eng Chem Res, 41: 4807–22, 2002.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    H. Bevrani and P. R. Daneshmand, IEEE Syst. J., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 173–180, Mar. 2012.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    I. Kocaarslan and E. Cam, Electr. Power Energy Syst., vol. 27, pp. 542–549, 2005.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pan CT, Liaw CM. IEEE Trans Power Syst 4(1): 122–8. 1989.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ali ES, Abd-Elazim SM. Electr Power Energy Syst,; 51: 224–31, 2013.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    C.E. Fosha, O.I. Elgerd, IEEE Trans. PAS 89 563–567, (1970).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Khodabakhshian A, Edrisi M. Control Eng Pract; 16: 1069–80, 2008.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wang Y, Zhou R, Wen C. “Robust load–frequency controller design for power system.” IEE Proc Gen Transm Distrib Part C; 140(1): 11–6, 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Khodabakhshian A, Hooshmand R Electr Power Energy Syst; 32: 375–82, 2010.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Morari, M.; Zafiriou, E. Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1989.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tan W; Xu Z Electric Power System Research; 79; 846–53, 2009.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bevrani H. Springer; 2009.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    H. Bevrani Y. Mitani. K, Tsuji. H. Bevrani, Energy convers 46, 1129–1146, 2005.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    H. Shayeghi, H. A. Shayanfar, and A. Jalili, Energy Convers. Manag., vol. 50, pp. 344–353, 2009.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ibraheem, P. Kumar, and D. P. Kothari, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 346–357, Feb. 2005.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ravi Shankar, S.R. Pradhan, Kalyan Chatterjee,⁎, Rajasi Mandal, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 76, 1185–1207 (2017).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    H. Saadat, McGraw-Hill, 1999.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Anwar, M. N., & Pan, S. Electric Power Energy Systems, 67, 560–569, 2015.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gundes AN, Chow L. In: American control conference (ACC), Washington, DC, USA; June 17–19, 2013.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tan W. Energy Convers Manage; 50: 1465–72, 2009.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Victor M, Alfaroa and Ramon vilanova, Journal of process control, vol. 22. pp. 359–374, (2012).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Padhan DG, Majhi S. ISA Trans; 52: 242–51, 2013.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kothari DP, Nagrath IJ (2009) McGraw-Hill, 2009.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electrical EngineeringNational Institute of TechnologyPatnaIndia

Personalised recommendations