Experimental and Numerical Investigations on In Situ Chemical Oxidation Model for Groundwater Contaminated with Petroleum Hydrocarbons

  • Natarajan Aarthi
  • Duraisamy Ashwin
  • Subbaiyan Gokulprasath
  • Mangottiri VasudevanEmail author
  • Narayanan Natarajan
  • Govindarajan Suresh Kumar
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 22)


The subsurface contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) from leaking underground storage tanks, pipelines and refilling stations is one of the serious issues directly affecting the quality of groundwater. Application of advanced oxidation process (AOP) has been favoured for the remediation of petroleum contaminated sites due to the spontaneous redox reactions mediated by a strong activating agent. In this study, we propose a methodology for efficient injection of reagents by using two concentric PTFE tubes in a sand box model for simulating the groundwater flow, contaminant transport and in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) using Fenton’s reagents (hydrogen peroxide and zero-valent iron particles). This injection method has proved to maximize the interaction of chemicals resulting in complete oxidation of petroleum compounds. An attempt has also been made to numerically simulate the mass transfer and transport of petroleum hydrocarbons incorporating the impact of spontaneous mass transfer by means of numerical methods. It is expected to have significant difference in interface mass transfer between free phase (oil) and water leading to increased exposure of residual oil phase, thereby enhancing the complete mass removal. The presence of soil organic matter (SOM) is found to be enhancing the activity of Fenton’s reagents as well as increasing the adsorption of hydrophobic organic compounds.


Chemical oxidation Fenton’s reagents Groundwater Numerical model Petroleum hydrocarbons Remediation 


  1. 1.
    Kong SH, Watts RJ, Choi JH (1998) Treatment of petroleum-contaminated soils using iron mineral catalyzed hydrogen peroxide. Chemosphere 37(8):1473–1482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bamforth SM, Singleton I (2005) Bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: current knowledge and future directions. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 80(7):723–736CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Vasudevan M, Johnston CD, Bastow TP, Lekmine G, Rayner JL, Nambi IM, Suresh Kumar G, Ravi Krishna R, Davis GB (2016) Effect of compositional heterogeneity on dissolution of non-ideal LNAPL mixtures. J Contam Hydrol 194:10–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Choi H, Lim HN, Kim J, Hwang TM, Kang JW (2002) Transport characteristics of gas phase ozone in unsaturated porous media for in-situ chemical oxidation. J Contam Hydrol 57(1):81–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kim J, Choi H (2002) Modeling in situ ozonation for the remediation of nonvolatile PAH-contaminated unsaturated soils. J Contam Hydrol 55(3):261–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yen CH, Chen KF, Kao CM, Liang SH, Chen TY (2011) Application of persulfate to remediate petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil: feasibility and comparison with common oxidants. J Hazard Mater 186(2):2097–2102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Shafieiyoun S, Ebadi T, Nikazar M (2012) Treatment of landfill leachate by Fenton process with nano sized zero valent iron particles. Int J Environ Res 6(1):119–128Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Petala E, Dimos K, Douvalis A, Bakas T, Tucek J, Zbořil R, Karakassides MA (2013) Nanoscale zero-valent iron supported on mesoporous silica: characterization and reactivity for Cr (VI) removal from aqueous solution. J Hazard Mater 261:295–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ferrarese E, Andreottola G, Oprea IA (2008) Remediation of PAH-contaminated sediments by chemical oxidation. J Hazard Mater 152(1):128–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shafieiyoun S, Ebadi T, Nikazar M (2011) Organic load removal of landfill leachate by fenton process using nano sized zero valent iron particles. In: Proceedings of international conference on environmental science and technology (ICEST 2011)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Vasudevan M, Suresh Kumar G, Nambi IM (2016) Scenario-based modeling of mass transfer mechanisms at a petroleum contaminated field site-numerical implications. J Environ Manage 175:9–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kartha SA, Srivastava R (2008) Effect of immobile water content on contaminant transport in unsaturated zone. J Hydro-Environ Res 1(3):206–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Feehley CE, Zheng C, Molz FJ (2000) A dual-domain mass transfer approach for modeling solute transport in heterogeneous aquifers: application to the macrodispersion experiment (MADE) site. Water Resour Res 36(9):2501–2515CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Vasudevan M, Suresh Kumar G, Nambi IM (2014) Numerical modeling of multicomponent LNAPL dissolution kinetics at residual saturation in a saturated subsurface system. Sadhana 39(part 6):1387–1408MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Natarajan N, Suresh Kumar G (2011) Numerical modeling of bacterial facilitated contaminant transport in fractured porous media. Colloids Surf A 387:104–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Natarajan Aarthi
    • 1
  • Duraisamy Ashwin
    • 1
  • Subbaiyan Gokulprasath
    • 1
  • Mangottiri Vasudevan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Narayanan Natarajan
    • 2
  • Govindarajan Suresh Kumar
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringBannari Amman Institute of TechnologySathyamangalam, ErodeIndia
  2. 2.Department of Civil EngineeringDr. Mahalingam College of Engineering and TechnologyPollachiIndia
  3. 3.Department of Ocean EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology MadrasChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations