Advertisement

Influence of Grouser Geometrical Parameters of Deep-Sea Crawler Vehicle on Soft Clays

  • C. JanarthananEmail author
  • K. Gopkumar
  • V. Sundaramoorthi
  • N. R. Ramesh
  • G. A. Ramadass
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 22)

Abstract

India has been involved in developing the technology for deep-sea mining in the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB) from approximately 6000 m water depth. The Central Indian Ocean Basin is abundant in nodules which are rich sources of minerals like manganese, copper, cobalt, and nickel. The mining machine has to collect the nodules from the seabed, crush them, and pump to the mother ship at the sea surface. The mining machine has to be supported on very soft sediments of shear strength less than 2 kPa. The maneuverability of mining machine becomes very critical while operating in such soft soils. One of the major challenges involved in deep-sea mining is the mobility of the mining machine on the soft seabed. Predicting the traction of the mining machine is very important for determining the mobility of the mining machine in such soft soils. To analyze the influence of geometrical parameters of the grouser on soft soil for traction performance, the conventional terramechanics approach of Mohr–Coulomb failure criteria method was used to obtain the traction parameters. The shear strength–shear displacement model of deep-sea soft sediments were obtained experimentally using a customized bevameter in bentonite soil to simulate soft soil deep-sea conditions. The traction force model for the various geometrical configurations of the grouser was numerically studied in ABAQUS software using coupled Eulerian–Lagrangian (CEL) technique. The influence of the grouser parameters, viz. shape and size, on the traction performance and the soil displacement was examined. To validate the analysis, experimental studies were undertaken with a scaled-down locomotion vehicle in simulated soft soil tank. The proposed paper brings out the studies undertaken and further analysis planned in the field.

Keywords

Grouser Traction Soft soil CEL ABAQUS 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors sincerely thank Ministry of Earth and Sciences, Government of India, for funding the technology development programs of deep-sea technologies group of NIOT and for encouraging us to carry out the research work.

References

  1. 1.
    Deepak CR, Shajahan MA, Atmanand MA, Annamalai K, Jeyamani R, Ravindran M, Schulte E, Panthel J, Grebe H, Schwarz W (2001) Developmental tests on the underwater mining system using flexible riser concept. In: Proceedings of 4th ocean mining symposium of international society of offshore and polar engineers, Szczecin, Poland, 23–27 Sept 2001Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rajesh S, Gnanaraj AA, Velmurugan A, Ramesh R, Muthuvel P, Babu MK, Ramesh NR, Deepak CR, Atmanand MA (2011) Qualification tests on underwater mining system with manganese nodule collection and crushing devices. In: Proceedings of the ninth ISOPE ocean mining symposium, Maui, Hawaii, USA, 19–24 June 2011Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schulte E, Schwarz W (2009) Simulation of tracked vehicle performance on deep sea soil based on soil mechanical laboratory measurements in bentonite soil OMS-ISOPEGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bekker MG (1969) Introduction to terrain-vehicle systems. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MIGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Nuttal CL (1971) Traction limit for tracked vehicles crawling the sea bottom. J Eng Ind Trans ASME 717–730Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Muro T (1983) Traflicability of tracked vehicle on super weak ground (in Japanese). lll/emoirs Fac Eng 10(2)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Muro T (1988) Grouser effect on tractive performance of a bull-dozer running on a superweak marine sediment. In: Proceedings of 2nd Asia-Pacific conference, ISTVS, Bangkok, Thailand, 6–10 DecGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bodin A (2001) Study of the influence parameter on tracive performance in deep snow. J Terramech 47–59Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Rehorn L (1994) Entwicklung eines Tiefseeraupenfahrzeugs und Untersuch- ung seiner inneren Fah7’1’fliderstaende, doctoral thesis (in German), University of GiegenGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hong S, Choi JS (2001) Experimental study on grouser shape effects on trafficability of extremely soft seabed. In: Proceedings of the 4th ocean mining symposium, Szczecin, Poland, pp 115–121Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hong JSS, Kim H, Lee TH (2003) An experimental study on tractive performance of tracked vehicle on cohesive soft soil. Isope 139–143Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Liu S, Wang G, Li L, Wang Z, Xu Y (2003) Virtual reality research of ocean poly-metallic nodule mining based on COMRA’s mining system, OMS-ISOPEGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Li L, Jue Z (2005) Research of China’s pilot-miner in the mining system of poly-metallic nodule, OMS ISOPEGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Manuwa S, Ademosun O (2007) Draught and soil disturbance of model tillage tines under varying soil parameters. Agric Eng Int 4:1–17Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wenbo MA, Qiuhua RAO, Feng K, Xu F (2015) Experimental research on grouser traction of deep-sea mining machine. Appl Math MechGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Khadge NH (2000) Geotechnical properties of surface sediments in the INDEX Area. Mar Georesour Geotechnol 18:251–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Khadge NH (1992) Geotechnical Properties of deep sea sediments from the Central Indian Ocean Basin. Indian J Mar Sci 21:80–82Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Muthukrishna Babu S, Ramesh NR, Muthuvel P, Ramesh R, Deepak CR, Atmanand MA (2013) In-Situ soil testing in the Central Indian Ocean Basin at 5462 m water depth. In: Tenth ISOPE ocean mining and gas hydrates symposium, 22–26 Sept, Szczecin, PolandGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bekker MG (1969) Introduction to terrain-vehicle systems. University of Michigan PressGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Laughery S, Gerhart G (1999) Bekker’s terramechanics model for off-road vehicle research. In: Ground mobility conference 1999, Houghton MIGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Grebe H, Schulte ES (2005) Determination of soil parameters based on the operational data of a ground operated tracked vehicle. In: Proceedings of 6th ocean mining symposium of international society of offshore and polar engineers, Changsha, Hunan, China, 9–13 Oct 2005Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wong JY (2001) Theory of ground vehicles, 3rd edn. Wiley Inc., USA, pp 144–153. ISBN 0-471-35461-9Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Simulia DS (2010) Installation and extraction of spudcans using Abaqus/Explicit. Abaqus technology brief, June 2010Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT)ChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations