Diagnosis, Assessment and Staging of Carcinoma of the Larynx

  • Sudhir Bahadur
  • Junaid Malik


Detailed assessment and staging of carcinoma of the larynx is mandatory as this will impact the treatment protocol. Decision-making is often complex and demanding. It is useful to remember that in most patients, the disease is resectable and treatable but not all are curable.


  1. 1.
    Roland N. Assessment and staging. In: Watkinson JC, Gilbert RW, editors. Stell Maran’s. Text book of head & neck surgery and oncology. London: Hoddar Arnold; 2012: p. 38–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Karnofsky DA, Abeman WH, Craver LF, Burchenail JH. The use of nitrogen mustards in palliative treatment of carcinoma. Cancer. 1948;1:634–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Goldman JL, Roffman JD. Indirect laryngoscopy. Laryngoscope. 1975;85:530–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Calhoun KH, Steinberg CM, Quinn FB, Clarke WD. Teaching indirect mirror laryngoscopy. Ototaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1989;100:80–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Shao J, Stern J, Wang JM, Henson D, et al. Clinical evaluation of 70° and 90° laryngeal telescopes. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2002;128:941–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Barker M, Dort JC. Laryngeal examination. A comparison of mirror examination with a rigid lens system. J Otolaryngol. 1991;20:100–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yanagisawa E, Yanagisawa K. Stroboscopic video-laryngoscopy: a comparison of fibroscopic and telescopic documentation. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1993;102:255–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Baker KH, Chaput MP, Clavet CR, et al. Evaluation of endoscopic sheaths as viral barriers. Laryngoscope. 1999;109:636–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sibermann HD. Non-inflatable sterile sheath for introduction of flexible nasopharyngolaryngoscope. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2001;110:385–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Altissimi G, Gallucci L, Prattichizzo L, et al. Laryngeal microscopy under general anesthesia using a small bore endotracheal tubes: blood gas analysis. Laryngoscope. 1994;104:325–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Edelist G, Alberth PW. Anesthesia for Co2 laser surgery of the larynx. J Otolaryngol. 1982;11:107–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shaker MH, Konechigeri HN, Andrews AH. Anaesthetic management for carbon dioxide laser surgery of the larynx. Laryngoscope. 1976;86:857–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hawkins JB, Joseph MM. Avoiding a wrapped endotracheal tube in laser laryngeal surgery. Experiences with apnoeic anesthesia and metal laser flex endotracheal tubes. Laryngoscope. 1990;10:1283–7.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Williams SR, Van Hasselt CA, Aun CS, et al. Tubeless anesthetic technique for optimal carbon dioxide lease surgery of the larynx. Am J Otolaryngol. 1993;14:271–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pillsbury HRC, Kirchner JA. Clinical versus histopathology staging in laryngeal cancer. Arch Otolaryngol. 1979;105:157–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sulfaro S, Barzan L, Qurein F, et al. T staging of laryngopharyngeal carcinoma. Arch Otolaryngol. 1989;15:613–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zbaren P, Becker M, Lang H. Staging of laryngeal cancer: endoscopy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance versus histopathlogy. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 1997;254(Suppl. 1):S117–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zbaren P, Becker M, Lang H. Pre-therapeutic staging of laryngeal carcinoma clinical findings, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging compared with histopathology. Cancer. 1996;70:1263–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Archer CR, Yeager VL. Computed tomography of laryngeal cancer with histopathological co-relation. Laryngoscope. 1982;92:1173–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Horowitz BL, Woodson GE, Bryan RN. CT of laryngeal tumours. Radiol Clin North Am. 1984;22:265–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Archer CR, Yeager VL, Herbold DR. Computed tomography vs histology of laryngeal cancer: their value in predicting laryngeal cartilage invasion. Laryngoscope. 1983;93:140–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Beckar M, Zbaren P, Lang H, et al. Neoplastic invasion of the laryngeal cartilage: comparision of MRI and CT with histopathologic co-relation. Radiology. 1995;194:661–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Casteligns JA, Golding RP, Van SC, et al. MR findings of cartilage invasion by laryngeal cancer: value in predicting outcome of radiation therapy. Radiology. 1990;174:669–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Curtin HD. Importance of imaging demonstration of neoplastic invasion of laryngeal cartilage. Radiology. 1995;194:643–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wortham DG, Hoover LA, Lufkin RB. Magnetic resonance imaging of the larynx: a co-relation with histologic sections. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1986;94:123–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Beitler JJ, Muller S, Grist WJ, et al. Prognostic accuracy of computed tomography findings for patients with laryngeal cancer undergoing laryngectomy. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28:2318–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lecmans CR, Tiwari R, Nauta JJ, Van der Waal I, Snow GB. Regional lymph node involvement and its significance in development of distant metastasis in the head and neck carcinoma. Cancer. 1993;71:452–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Van de Brekal M, Castelings J, Snow G. The size of lymph nodes in the neck on sonograms as radiology criteria for metastasis: how reliable is it. Am J Neuro radiol. 1998;19:695–700.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Andrea M, Dias O, Sanbos A. Contact endoscopy during micro-laryngeal surgery. A new technique for endoscopic examination of the larynx. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1995;104:333–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wardrop PJ, Sim S, McLaren K. Contact endoscopy of the larynx, a quantitative study. J Laryngol Otol. 2000;114:437–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kraft M, Betz CM, Leumig A. Value of fluorescence endoscopy for early diagnosis of laryngeal cancer and its precursor lesions. Head Neck. 2011;33:941–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Arens C, Dreyert T, Glanz H, Malzahn K. Indirect auto-fluorescence laryngoscopy in the diagnosis of laryngeal cancer and its precursor lesions. Eur Arch Otorrhinolaryngol. 2004;261:71–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zargi M, Fajdiga J, Smid J. Auto-fluorescence imaging in diagnosis of laryngeal cancer. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2000;257:17–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Watanabe A, Taniguchi M, Tsujie H. The value of narrow band imaging for early detection of laryngeal cancer. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;266:1017–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Banko B, Dukic V, Milovanovic J, et al. Diagnostic significance of magnetic resonance imaging in preoperative evaluation of patients with laryngeal tumour. Eur Arch Otolaryngol. 2011;268:1617–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Dechen W, Vogal T, Zbaeran P, et al. Diffusion - weighted MR imaging including bi-exponential fitting for the detection of recurrent or residual tumour afte (chemo) radiotherapy for laryngeal and hypopharygeal cancers. Eur Radiol. 2013;23:562–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sudhir Bahadur
    • 1
  • Junaid Malik
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Otolaryngology and Head-Neck SurgeryFormerly at All India Institute of Medical SciencesNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Otolaryngology and Head-Neck SurgeryHamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Jamia HamdardNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations