Advertisement

An Inspiration from Border Crossing: Principle of Boundary Activity for Integrating Learning in the Formal and Informal Spaces

  • Daner SunEmail author
  • Chee-Kit Looi
Chapter
Part of the Lecture Notes in Educational Technology book series (LNET)

Abstract

With the recognition of the value of learning in informal spaces, it has been proposed that learning in the informal spaces should be an integral part of the formal schooling. The ubiquitous use of mobile technology creates various opportunities for connecting learning in the formal and informal contexts. In seamless learning, different efforts have been devoted to improving the synergy of these two learning contexts supported by mobile technology, but challenges still exist in the design of seamless learning scenarios that involve the pedagogical integration of learning in formal and informal spaces with active boundary interaction. To promote the mutual interaction of learning contexts in seamless learning, and improve the smooth transformation of students’ cognition in crossing borders, we elaborate on the conception of “boundary object” which is borrowed from science education and learning sciences and inspired by the notion of border crossing from the cultural perspectives, as the knot for tightening learning in different contexts. In this chapter, we will summarize the origins of the boundary objects and discuss their application in improving the boundary interactions in seamless learning. Based on these, the principle of boundary activity-based learning (BABL) is articulated for improving the design of seamless learning activities. A BABL lesson exemplar is illustrated for BABL application, and the initial results of a pilot study are discussed. The BABL principle and the research will inform the pedagogical design of technology-supported STEM education and science learning in a seamless learning context.

Keywords

Informal spaces Seamless learning Boundary object Boundary activity-based learning (BABL) STEM/science learning 

References

  1. Ahmed, S., & Parsons, D. (2013). Abductive science inquiry using mobile devices in the classroom. Computers & Education, 63, 62–72.Google Scholar
  2. Aikenhead, G. S. (1996). Science education: Border crossing into the subculture of science. Studies in Science Education, 27, 1–52.Google Scholar
  3. Aikenhead, G. S. (2001). Students’ ease in crossing cultural borders into school science. Science Education, 85(2), 180–188.Google Scholar
  4. Aikenhead, G. S., & Jegede, O. J. (1999). Cross-cultural science education: A cognitive explanation of a cultural phenomenon. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 36, 269–287.Google Scholar
  5. Akkerman, S. F., & Bakker, A. (2011). Boundary crossing and boundary objects. Review of Educational Research, 81(2), 132–169.Google Scholar
  6. Bell, P., Lewenstein, B., Shouse, A. W., & Feder, M. A. (2009). Learning science in informal environments: People, places, and pursuits. Washington, DC: The National Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  7. DeWitt, J., & Osborne, J. (2007). Supporting Teachers on Science-focused School Trips: Towards an integrated framework of theory and practice. International Journal of Science Education, 29(6), 685–710.Google Scholar
  8. Education Bureau. (2016). Report on promotion of STEM education: Unleashing potential in innovation. Retrieved from: https://www.edb.gov.hk/attachment/en/curriculum-development/renewal/STEM%20Education%20Report_Eng.pdf.
  9. Gerber, B. L., Cavallo, A. M., & Marek, E. A. (2001). Relationships among informal learning environments, teaching procedures and scientific reasoning ability. International Journal of Science Education, 23(5), 535–549.Google Scholar
  10. Gilbert, J., & Priest, M. (1997). Models and discourse: A primary school science class visit to a museum. Science Education, 81(6), 749–762.Google Scholar
  11. Hofstein, A., & Rosenfeld, S. (1996). Bridging the gap between formal and informal science learning. Studies in Science Education, 28(1), 87–112.Google Scholar
  12. Hwang, G. J., & Tsai, C. C. (2011). Research trends in mobile and ubiquitous learning: A review of publications in selected journals from 2001 to 2010. British Journal of Educational Technology, 42(4), E65–E70.Google Scholar
  13. Kim, C. M., Kim, D., Yuan, J., Hill, R. B., Doshi, P., & Thai, C. N. (2015). Robotics to promote elementary education pre-service teachers’ STEM engagement, learning, and teaching. Computers & Education, 91, 14–31.Google Scholar
  14. Kisiel, J. F. (2014). Clarifying the complexities of school–museum interactions: Perspectives from two communities. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 51(3), 342–367.Google Scholar
  15. Looi, C.-K., Sun, D., Wu, L., Seow, P., & Chia, G. (2014). Implementing mobile learning curricula in a grade level: Empirical study of learning effectiveness at scale. Computers & Education, 77, 101–115.Google Scholar
  16. Looi, C.-K., Wong, L.-H., So, H.-J., Seow, P., Toh, Y., Chen, W., … Soloway, E. (2009). Anatomy of a mobilized lesson: Learning my way. Computers & Education, 53(4), 1120–1132.Google Scholar
  17. Merchant, G. (2012). Mobile practices in everyday life: Popular digital technologies and schooling revisited. British Journal of Educational Technology, 43(5), 770–782.Google Scholar
  18. Morag, O., & Tal, T. (2012). Assessing learning in the outdoors with the field trip in Natural Environments (FiNE) Framework. International Journal of Science Education, 34(5), 745–777.Google Scholar
  19. Nadelson, L. S., Callahan, J., Pyke, P., Hay, A., Dance, M., & Pfiester, J. (2013). Teacher STEM perception and preparation: Inquiry-based STEM professional development for elementary teachers. Journal of Educational Research, 106(2), 157–168.Google Scholar
  20. National Research Council. (2009). National Science Education Standards. Washington, D.C: The National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  21. National Research Council. (2011). Successful STEM education: A workshop summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  22. Nugent, G., Barker, B., Welch, G., Grandgenett, N., Wu, C., & Nelson, C. (2015). A model of factors contributing to STEM learning and career orientation. International Journal of Science Education, 37(7), 1067–1088.Google Scholar
  23. OECD. (2008). Recognition of non-formal and informal learning. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/education/skills-beyond-school/recognitionofnon-formalandinformallearning-home.htm.
  24. Otero, N., Milrad, M., Rogers, Y., Santos, A. J., Verissimo, M., & Torres, N. (2011). Challenges in designing seamless learning scenarios: Affective and emotional effects on external representations. International Journal of Mobile Learning and Organisation, 5(1), 15–27.Google Scholar
  25. Patrick, P., Mathews, C., & Tunnicliffe, S. D. (2013). Using a field trip inventory to determine if listening to elementary school students’ conversations, while on a zoo field trip, enhances preservice teachers’ abilities to plan zoo field trips. International Journal of Science Education, 35(15), 2645–2669.Google Scholar
  26. Rickinson, M., Dillon, J., Teamey, K., Morris, M., Choi, M. Y., Sanders, D., et al. (2004). A review of research on outdoor learning. Shrewsbury: National Foundation for Educational Research and King’s College London.Google Scholar
  27. Rogers, Y., & Price, S. (2008). The role of mobile devices in facilitating collaborative inquiry in situ. Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, 3(3), 209–229.Google Scholar
  28. Sharples, M., Sánchez, I.A., Milrad, M., Vavoula, G. (2009). Mobile learning: Small devices, big issues. In N. Balacheff, S. Ludvigsen, T. Jong, & S. de Barnes (Eds.), Technology enhanced learning: Principles and products (pp. 233–249). Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.Google Scholar
  29. Sharples, M., Eileen, S., Shaaron, A., Stamatina, A., Trevor, C., Charles, C., … Claire, O.M. (2014). Personal inquiry: Orchestrating science investigations within and beyond the classroom. Journal of the Learning Sciences.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10508406.2014.944642.Google Scholar
  30. So, H.-J., Seow, P., & Looi, C.-K. (2009). Location matters: Leveraging knowledge building with mobile devices and Web 2.0 technology. Interactive Learning Environments, 17(4), 367–382.Google Scholar
  31. Song, Y. (2016). “We found the ‘black spots’ on campus on our own”: Development of inquiry skills in primary science learning with BYOD (Bring Your Own Device). Interactive Learning Environments, 24(2), 291–305.Google Scholar
  32. Song, Y., Wong, L.-H., & Looi, C.-K. (2012). Fostering personalized learning in science inquiry supported by mobile technologies. Education Technology Research Development, 60(4), 679–701.Google Scholar
  33. Star, S.L & Griesemer, J.R. (1989). Institutional ecology, translation and boundary objects: Amateurs and professionals in Berkeley’s museum of vertebrate zoology, 1907–39. Social Studies of Science, 19(3), 387–420.Google Scholar
  34. Sun, D., & Looi, C.-K. (2017). Boundary interaction: Towards developing a mobile technology-enabled science curriculum to integrate learning in the informal spaces. British Journal of Educational Technology.  https://doi.org/10.1111/bjet.12555.Google Scholar
  35. Sun, D., Looi, C.-K., & Wu, L. (2016a). The innovative immersion of mobile learning into a science curriculum in Singapore: An exploratory study. Research in Science Education.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11165-015-9471-0.Google Scholar
  36. Sun, D., Looi, C.-K., Wu, L., & Xie, W. (2016b). The innovative immersion of mobile learning into a science curriculum in Singapore: An exploratory study. Research in Science Education, 46(4), 547–573.Google Scholar
  37. Starkey, L. (2011). Evaluating learning in the 21st century: a digital age learning matrix. Technology, Pedagogy and Education, 20(1), 19–39.Google Scholar
  38. Suáreza, A., Spechta, M., Prinsenb, F., Kalza, M., & Terniera, S. (2018). A review of the types of mobile activities in mobile inquiry-based learning. Computers & Education, 118, 38–55.Google Scholar
  39. Thijs, A., & van den Akker, J. (Eds.). (2009). Curriculum in development. Enschede, Netherlands: SLO-Netherlands Institute for Curriculum Development. Retrieved from http://www.slo.nl/downloads/2009/curriculum-in-development.pdf/.
  40. Thüs, H., Chatti, M. A., Yalcin, E., Pallasch, C., Kyryliuk, B., Mageramov, T., & Schroeder, U. (2012). Mobile learning in context. International Journal of Technology Enhanced Learning, 4(5–6), 332–344.Google Scholar
  41. Tsurusaki, B. K., Calabrese Barton, A., Tan, E., Koch, P., & Contento, I. (2012). Using transformative boundary objects to create critical engagement in science: a case study. Science Education, 97(1), 1–31.Google Scholar
  42. Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning and identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Williams, J., & Wake, G. (2007). Black boxes in workplace mathematics. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 64(3), 317–343.Google Scholar
  44. Wong, L.-H., & Looi, C.-K. (2011). What seams do we remove in mobile-assisted seamless learning? A critical review of the literature. Computers & Education, 57, 2364–2381.Google Scholar
  45. Wong, L.-H., Chen, W., & Jan, M. (2012). How artefacts mediate small-group co-creation activities in a mobile-assisted seamless language learning environment? Journal of Computer Assisted learning, 28(5), 411–424.Google Scholar
  46. Zhang, J. (1997). The nature of external representations in problem solving. Cognitive Science, 21(2), 179–217.Google Scholar
  47. Zhang, J., Bogouslavsky, M., & Yuang, G. (2017). Cross-community interaction for knowledge building in two grade 5/6 classrooms. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL 2017). International Society of the Learning Sciences.Google Scholar
  48. Zhang, J., Tao, T., Chen, M.-H., Sun, Y., Judson D., & Naqvi, S. (2018). Co-organizing the collective journey of inquiry with idea thread mapper. Journal of the Learning Sciences. DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1080/10508406.2018.1444992.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Education University of Hong KongHong Kong SARChina
  2. 2.Nanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations