The Localisation of Technology Education Curriculum in Botswana

  • Victor RueleEmail author
Part of the Contemporary Issues in Technology Education book series (CITE)


This chapter explores the management of change from a British model of design and technology (D&T) curriculum to the Botswana model designed for senior secondary schools. The study employed the ADKAR (awareness, desire, knowledge, ability and reinforcement) change model, originally designed for business and industry as a diagnostic tool to assess the nature of change and use insights gained to identify gaps in the implementation and make proposals for more effective implementation. In terms of data collection, a multi-method approach was adopted which included questionnaires, individual and group interviews as well as document review. The bulk of the data were collected from in-service officers and teachers because of their role as change managers and implementers, respectively. A number of challenges are identified with the implementation of this curriculum as follows: a limited implementation strategy, a limited participation by key stakeholders, a weak coalition for change, a limited administrative support especially in terms of provision of resources and a limited teacher support system as well as weak reinforcement mechanisms to sustain the change. The ADKAR framework employed in this study was found to be a useful diagnostic tool to assess readiness across all levels of the Ministry of Education in terms of the capacity to implement a new curriculum.


  1. Atkinson, S. (1990). Design and technology in the United Kingdom: Historical perspective. Journal of Design & Technology Education, 2(1), 1–12.Google Scholar
  2. Cameron, E., & Green, M. (2012). Making sense of change management: A complete guide to the model, tools and techniques of organisational change (3rd ed.). London: Kogan Page Limited.Google Scholar
  3. Chikasanda, V. K. M. (2010). An investigation of the development of students ‘and teachers’ perceptions towards technology: A framework for reconstructing technology education in Malawi. (Unpublished PhD). University of Waikato, New Zealand, Centre for Science and Technology Education Research: University of New Zealand.Google Scholar
  4. Eggleston, J. (1996). Teaching design and technology (2nd ed.). Buckingham: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Fox, R. (1988). A report to the ministry of education, Botswana on completion of a consultation and in-service teaching tour. Gaborone: Government Printers.Google Scholar
  6. Fullan, M. (1993). Change forces: Probing the depths of educational reform. London: The Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  7. Fullan, M. (2001). The new meaning of educational change (3rd ed.). London: Routledge Falmer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gaotlhobogwe, M. (2010). Attitudes to and perceptions of design and technology students towards the subject: A case of five junior secondary schools in Botswana. (Unpublished PhD). University of Wales Institute.Google Scholar
  9. Harvard Business Press. (2003). Managing change and transition. Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation.Google Scholar
  10. Hiatt, J. M., & Creasey, T. (2012). Change Management. In The people side of change. Colorado: Prosci Learning Centre Publications.Google Scholar
  11. Jones, A. (2003). The development of a national curriculum in technology for New Zealand. The Journal of Technology and Design Education, 13, 83–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kotter, J. P. (1996). Leading change. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  13. Lachiever, G., & Tardif, J. (2002). Fostering and managing change and innovation. In Frontiers in education, 2002, FIE 2002, 32nd Annual (Vol. 2).Google Scholar
  14. Lewis, T. (2000). Technology education and developing countries. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 10(2), 163–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ministry of Education. (2000). Botswana general certificate of secondary education teaching syllabus: Design and technology. Gaborone: Curriculum Development and Evaluation.Google Scholar
  16. Moalosi, R. (1999). Historical perspective of traditional technical subjects in Botswana. The DATA Journal of Design and Technology Education, 4(2), 159–160.Google Scholar
  17. Moalosi, D. R. (2007). The impact of socio-cultural factors upon human-centred design in Botswana (Unpublished PhD). Queensland University of Technology, Australia.Google Scholar
  18. Molwane, O. B. (2003). Assessing students’ capability in design and technology education in junior secondary schools in Botswana. (Unpublished PhD). Goldsmiths University of London, Department of Design; Goldsmiths University of London.Google Scholar
  19. Morrison, K. (1998). Management theories for educational change. London: Sage Publications Company.Google Scholar
  20. Ndaba, N. (1994). The effects of the shift from the traditional craft subjects to design and technology – the Botswana experience. IDATER Conference, Loughborough University.Google Scholar
  21. Neuman, W. L. (2011). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches (6th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  22. Rasinen, A. (2003). An analysis of the technology education curriculum in six countries. The Jounral of Technology Education, 15(1), 31–47.Google Scholar
  23. Republic of Botswana. (1994). The revised national policy on education. Government paper No. 2. Gaborone: The Government Printer.Google Scholar
  24. Republic of Botswana. (2009). Final BGCSE evaluation report. Gaborone: Department of Curriculum Development and Evaluation.Google Scholar
  25. Welch, M., & Mueller, A. (2003). In the shoes of a student: Professional development in a classroom context. The Journal of Design and Technology Education, 8(2), 91–100.Google Scholar
  26. Whitaker, P. (1993). Managing change in schools: Developing teachers and teaching. Buckingham: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Williams, P. J. (2007). A global curriculum: Design and technology in the international baccalaureate. Design and Technology Education: An International Journal, 12(3), 47–57.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of BotswanaGaboroneBotswana

Personalised recommendations