Advertisement

Unfair Terms

  • Jiangqiu Ge
Chapter

Abstract

The law has to evolve and reflect economic and societal developments in order to adapt to the new circumstances it needs to regulate. Nowadays, contract terms are scarcely negotiated in a real sense. This development challenges the traditional approach of contract law and raises the question: how should contract law adapt to this new reality? Put differently, with the widespread use of pre-formulated or standard contracts, it is necessary to reconsider the traditional understanding of contract law in line with the principles of ‘party autonomy’ and ‘freedom of contract’. These principles have to reflect this new trend and to some extent change in several fundamental ways. For example, the traditional understanding of the principle of party autonomy suggests that the parties can decide the substantive content of their contract and the law should not interfere. However, nowadays the substantive fairness of such contract is addressed in most jurisdictions, primarily to protect the weaker party. In this context, the law needs to first establish legitimacy to interfere with contracts so as to achieve these policy objectives, and then develop legal mechanisms to control these terms.

References

  1. (Beale 1989) Hugh Beale, ‘Unfair Contracts in Britain and Europe’, 42 Current Legal Problems 1, 1989, p. 197–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. (Beale 1999) Hugh Beale (ed.), Chitty on Contracts, vol.1, 28th edition, London: Sweet & Maxwell, 1999.Google Scholar
  3. (Beale, Fauvarque-Cosson, Rutgers, Tallon & Vogenauer 2010) Hugh Beale, Bénédicte Fauvarque-Cosson, Jacobien Rutgers, Denis Tallon & Stefan Vogenauer, Cases, Materials and Text on Contract Law, 2nd edition, Portland: Hart Publishing, 2010.Google Scholar
  4. (Beatson, Burrows & Cartwright 2016) Jack Beatson, Andrew Burrow & John Cartwright, Anson’s Law of Contract, 30th edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016.Google Scholar
  5. (Brandner & Ulmer 1991) Hans Erich Brandner & Peter Ulmer, ‘The Community Directive on Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts: Some Critical Remarks on the Proposal Submitted by the EC Commission’, 28 Common Market Law Review, 1991, p. 647–662.Google Scholar
  6. (Bright 2000) Susan Bright, ‘Winning the Battle against Unfair Contract Terms’, 20 Legal Studies 3, 2000, p. 331–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. (Cauffman 2012) Caroline Cauffman, ‘The Impact of EU Law on Belgian Consumer Law Terminology’, 20 European Review of Private Law 5/6, 2012, p. 1325–1351.Google Scholar
  8. (Chen 2010) Lei Chen, ‘Private Property with Chinese Characteristics: A Critical Analysis of the Chinese Law on Property of 2007’, 18 European Review of Private Law 5, 2010, p. 983–1004.Google Scholar
  9. (Cherednychenko 2015) Olha O. Cherednychenko, ‘Public and Private Enforcement of European Private Law: Perspectives and Challenges’, 23 European Review of Private Law 4, 2015, p. 481–489.Google Scholar
  10. (Civil Law Office of the Legislative Affairs Commission of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (全国人大法制工作委员会民法室) 1999) 全国人大法制工作委员会民法室编著[Civil Law Office of the Legislative Affairs Commission of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (eds.)]:《〈中华人民共和国合同法〉立法资料选》[The Selection of Legislative Materials of the Contract Law of the People’s Republic of China],法律出版社1999年版[Law Press, 1999]Google Scholar
  11. (Cseres 2008) KJ Cseres, ‘What Has Competition Done for Consumers in Liberalised Markets?’, 4 The Competition Law Review 2, p. 77–121.Google Scholar
  12. (Cui (崔建远) 2007) 崔建远主编[Jianyuan Cui (ed.)]:《合同法》[Contract Law],法律出版社2007年第4版[Law Press, 2007, 4th Edition]。Google Scholar
  13. (Cui (崔建远) 2008) 崔建远[Jianyuan Cui]:《合同法总论》(上卷)[General Introduction to Contract Law (Vol. 1)],中国人民大学出版社2008年版[China Renmin University Press, 2008]。Google Scholar
  14. (Cui (崔建远) 2014) 崔建远[Jianyuan Cui]:“编纂民法典必须摆正几对关系”[The Need For Straightening Several Relations When Enacting the Chinese Civil Code],《清华法学》2014年第6期[Tsinghua University Law Journal, 2014(6)],第43—53页[p. 43–53]。Google Scholar
  15. (Ebers 2010) Martin Ebers, ‘ECJ (First Chamber) 6 October 2009, Case C-40/08, Asturcom Telecomunicaciones SL v. Cristina Rodríguez Nogueira – From Océano to Asturcom: Mandatory Consumer Law, Ex Officio Application of European Union Law and Res Judicata’, 18 European Review of Private Law 4, 2010, p. 823–846.Google Scholar
  16. (Fan (范子军) 2014) 范子军[Zijun Fan]:“‘约谈执法’弹不动‘霸王条款’”[Administrative Talk Cannot Deal with Unfair Terms],《人民法院报》2014年3月28日第02版[People’s Court Daily, 2014/3/28, Page 02]。Google Scholar
  17. (Faure & Luth 2011) Michael G. Faure & Hanneke A. Luth, ‘Behavioural Economics in Unfair Contract Terms: Cautions and Considerations’, 34 Journal of Consumer Policy 3, 2011, p. 337–358.Google Scholar
  18. (Gavrilovic 2013) Nenad Gavrilovic, ‘The Unfair Contract Terms Directive through the Practice of the Court of Justice of the European Union Interpretation or Something More’, 9 European Review of Contract Law 2, 2013, p. 163–180.Google Scholar
  19. (Goanta 2016) Catalina Goanta, Convergence in European Consumer Sales Law: A Comparative and Numerical Approach, Cambridge: Intersentia, 2016.Google Scholar
  20. (Han (韩世远) 1994) 韩世远[Shiyuan Han]:“免责条款研究”[Research on Exemption Clauses],载梁慧星主编[Huixing Liang (ed.)]:《民商法论丛》(第2卷)[Civil and Commercial Law Review, Vol. 2],法律出版社1994年版[Law Press, 1994]。Google Scholar
  21. (Han (韩世远) 2011) 韩世远[Shiyuan Han]:《合同法总论》[The Law of Contract],法律出版社2011年第3版[Law Press, 2011, 3rd Edition]。Google Scholar
  22. (Hesselink 2011) Martijn W. Hesselink, ‘The Concept of Good Faith’, in Arthu Hartkamp, Martijn Hesselink, Ewoud Hondius, Chantal Mak, Edgar du Perron (eds.), Towards a European Civil Code, Fourth revised and expanded edition, Alphen aan den Rijn: Kluwer Law International, 2011.Google Scholar
  23. (Hondius 1997) Ewoud Hondius, ‘Non-implementation of the Directive on Unfair Contract Terms: the Dutch case’, 5 European Review of Private Law 2, 1997, p. 193–196.Google Scholar
  24. (Hu (胡康生) 2013) 胡康生主编[Kangsheng Hu (ed.)]:《中华人民共和国合同法释义》[Paraphrase on the Contract Law of the People’s Republic of China],法律出版社2013年第3版[Law Press, 2013, 3rd edition]Google Scholar
  25. (Jia (贾东明) 2013) 贾东明主编[Dongming Jia (ed.)]:《中华人民共和国消费者权益保护法解读》[Understanding on the Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Consumer Rights and Interests],中国法制出版社2013年版[China Legal Publishing House, 2013]。Google Scholar
  26. (Kornet 2006) Nicole Kornet, Contract Interpretation and Gap Filling: Comparative and Theoretical Perspectives, Antwerpen: Intersentia, 2006.Google Scholar
  27. (Legal Department of Shanxi Administration for Industry and Commerce (山西省工商局法制处) 2013) 山西省工商局法制处[Legal Department of Shanxi Administration for Industry and Commerce]:“山西省工商系统查办的典型格式条款违法案件”[Typical Cases Regarding Violations by Standard Terms Handled by the Shanxi Administrative System for Industry and Commerce],《中国工商报》2013年7月4日第A03版[China Industry and Commerce News, 2013/7/4, Page A03]。Google Scholar
  28. (Liang (梁慧星) 1993) 梁慧星[Huixing Liang]:《民法学说判例与立法研究》[Research on Civil Law’s Theories, Cases and Legislation],中国政法大学出版社1993年版[China University of Political Science and Law Press, 1993]。Google Scholar
  29. (Liang (梁慧星) 1995) 梁慧星[Huixing Liang]:《民法解释学》[Civil Law Hermeneutics],中国政法大学出版社1995年版[China University of Political Science and Law Press, 1995]。Google Scholar
  30. (Liang (梁慧星) 1999) 梁慧星[Huixing Liang]:《民法学说判例与立法研究》(第2册)[Research on Civil Law’s Theories, Cases and Legislation (Vol. 2)],国家行政学院出版社1999年版[China National School of Administration Press, 1999]。Google Scholar
  31. (Liang (梁慧星) 2000) 梁慧星[Huixing Liang]:“中国的消费者政策和消费者立法”[On Chinese Consumer Policies and Consumer Legislation],《法学》2000 年第5期[Law Science, 2000(5)],第20—26页[p. 20–26]。Google Scholar
  32. (Liang (梁慧星) 2002) 梁慧星[Huixing Liang]:《为中国民法典而斗争》[Fighting for China’s Civil Code],法律出版社2002年版[Law Press, 2002]。Google Scholar
  33. (Liang (梁慧星) 2007) 梁慧星[Huixing Liang]:《民法总论》[General Introduction to Civil Law],法律出版社2007年第3版[Law Press, 2007, 3rd Edition]。Google Scholar
  34. (Markesinis, Unberath & Johnston 2006) Basil Markesinis, Hannes Unberath & Angus Johnston, The German Law of Contract: A Comparative Treatise, 2nd edition, Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2006.Google Scholar
  35. (McKendrick 2016) Ewan McKendrick, Contract Law: Text, Cases, and Materials, 7th edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016.Google Scholar
  36. (Meng (孟强龙) 2015) 孟强龙[Qianglong Meng]:“行政约谈法治化研究”[On the Institutionalisation of Administrative Talk],《行政法学研究》2015年第6期[Administrative Law Review, 2016(6)],第99—118页[p. 99–118]。Google Scholar
  37. (Micklitz, Stuyck & Terryn 2010) Hans-W. Micklitz, Jules Stuyck, Evelyne Terryn (eds.), Cases, Materials and Text on Consumer Law, Portland: Hart Publishing, 2010.Google Scholar
  38. (Micklitz & Reich 2014) Hans-W. Micklitz & Norbert Reich, ‘The Court and Sleeping Beauty: The Revival of the Unfair Contract Terms Directive (UCTD)’, 51 Common Market Law Review 3, 2014, p. 771–808.Google Scholar
  39. (Micklitz 2015) Hans-W. Micklitz, ‘The Transformation of Enforcement in European Private Law: Preliminary Considerations’, 23 European Review of Private Law 4, 2015, p. 491–524.Google Scholar
  40. (Nebbia 2007) Paolisa Nebbia, Unfair Contract Terms in European Law: A Study in Comparative and EC Law, Portland: Hart Publishing, 2007.Google Scholar
  41. (Nebbia 2010) Paolisa Nebbia, ‘Unfair Contract Terms’, in Christian Twigg-Flesner (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to European Union Private Law, New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010, p. 216–228.Google Scholar
  42. (Novaretti 2010) Simona Novaretti, ‘General Clauses and Practice: The Use of the Principle of Good Faith in Decisions of Chinese Courts’, 18 European Review of Private Law 5, 2010, p. 953–981.Google Scholar
  43. (Peel & Treitel 2007) Edwin Peel & G. H. Treitel, Treitel on the Law of Contract, 12th edition, London: Sweet & Maxwell, 2007.Google Scholar
  44. (Poole 2012) Jill Poole, Textbook on Contract Law, 11th edition, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.Google Scholar
  45. (Research Office of the Legislative Affairs Commission of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress (全国人大法工委研究室编写组) 1999) 全国人大法工委研究室编写组[Research Office of the Legislative Affairs Commission of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress]:《中华人民共和国合同法释义》[Paraphrase on Contract Law of People’s Republic of China],人民法院出版社1999年版[People’s Court Press, 1999]。Google Scholar
  46. (Research Office of the Supreme People’s Court (最高人民法院研究室) 2009) 最高人民法院研究室编著[Research Office of the Supreme People’s Court (eds.)]:《最高人民法院关于合同法司法解释(二)理解与适用》[Interpretation and Application of the Interpretation II of the Supreme People’s Court of Several Issues concerning the Application of the Contract Law of the People’s Republic of China],人民法院出版社2009年版[People’s Court Press, 2009]。Google Scholar
  47. (Rougier-Brierre 2007) Guillaume Rougier-Brierre, ‘The Particularities of Contractual Negotiation and Practice in China’, 2007 International Business Law Journal 2, 2007, p. 151–170.Google Scholar
  48. (Smits 2014) Jan M. Smits, Contract Law: A Comparative Introduction, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2014.Google Scholar
  49. (Steennot 2015) Reinhard Steennot, ‘Public and Private Enforcement in the Field of Unfair Contract Terms’, 23 European Review of Private Law 4, 2015, p. 589–619.Google Scholar
  50. (Su (苏号朋) 2004) 苏号朋[Haopeng Su]:《格式合同研究》[A Study on Standard Contract Clauses],中国人民大学出版社2004年版[China Renmin University Press, 2004]。Google Scholar
  51. (Suli (苏力) 2003) 苏力[Suli]:“司法解释、公共政策和最高法院——从最高法院有关‘奸淫幼女’的司法解释切入”[Judicial Interpretation, Public Policy and the Supreme People’s Court – Judicial Interpretation on the Crime of Fornication with an Underage Girl as Cutting Point],《法学》2003年第8期[Law Science, 2003(8)],第3—29页[p. 3–29]。Google Scholar
  52. (Tan & Hu (谭振亚、胡建) 2012) 谭振亚、胡建[Zhenya Tan, Jian Hu]:“论格式条款之订入合同及其效力——以中国大陆与德国、中国台湾地区立法之比较为视角”[On Incorporation and Effectiveness of Standard Terms – On the basis of the Comparison among Mainland China, Germany and Chinese Taipei],《云南财经大学学报(社会科学版)》2012年第1期[Yunnan Finance & Economics University Journal of Economics & Management, 2012(1)],第137—142页[p. 137–142]。Google Scholar
  53. (Wang & Cui (王利明、崔建远) 2000) 王利明、崔建远[Liming Wang, Jianyuan Cui]:《合同法新论•总则》[New Theory on Contract Law: General Principles ],中国政法大学出版社2000年修订版[China University of Political Science and Law Press, 2000, revised Edition]。Google Scholar
  54. (Wang (王利明) 2002a) 王利明[Liming Wang]:“消费者的概念及消费者权益保护法的调整范围”[The Concept of Consumer and the Applicable Scope of the Consumer Protection Law],《政治与法律》2002年第2期[Political Science and Law, 2002(2)],第3—12页[p. 3–12]。Google Scholar
  55. (Wang (王利明) 2002b) 王利明[Liming Wang]:《合同法研究》(第1卷)[Research on Contract Law (Book 1)],中国人民大学出版社2002年版[China Renmin University Press, 2002]。Google Scholar
  56. (Wang (汪世荣) 2000) 汪世荣[Shirong Wang]:“司法解释批复四题”[Four Problems on the Written Reply of Judicial Interpretation],《法律科学(西北政法学院学报)》2000年第4期[Law Science (Journal of Northwest Institute of Political Science and Law), 2000(4)],第16—28页[p. 16–28]。Google Scholar
  57. (Wang (王利明) 2011b) 王利明 [Liming Wang]:《侵权责任法研究(上卷)》 [Research on Tort Liability Law(Book 1)], 中国人民大学出版社2011年版 [China Renmin University Press, 2011]。Google Scholar
  58. (Wilhelmsson 2011) Thomas Wilhelmsson, ‘Standard Form Conditions’, in Arthu Hartkamp, Martijn Hesselink, Ewoud Hondius, Chantal Mak & Edgar du Perron (eds.), Towards a European Civil Code, Fourth revised and expanded edition, Alphen aan den Rijn: Kluwer Law International, 2011, p. 571–586.Google Scholar
  59. (Wu (吴志勇) 2004) 吴志勇[Zhiyong Wu]:“浅议合同格式条款的行政监管”[On the Administrative Supervision on Contractual Standard Terms],《工商行政管理》2004年第16期[Biweekly of Administration for Industry and Commerce, 2004(16)],第29—30页[p. 29–30]。Google Scholar
  60. (Yan (晏扬) 2016) 晏扬[Yang Yan]:“‘消协起诉水务’堪称公益诉讼样本”[Consumers’ Association sue Tap Water Company: A Template for Public Interest Litigation],《检察日报》2016年11月2日第5版[Procuratorate Daily, 2016/11/02, Page 5]。Google Scholar
  61. (Yao (姚敏) 2013) 姚敏[Min Yao]:“6种餐饮霸王条款被北京工商局叫停”[Six Types of Unfair Terms Are Prohibited by the Beijing Administration for Industry and Commerce],《中国消费者报》2013年12月16日第B01版[China Consumer News, 2013/12/16, Page B01]。Google Scholar
  62. (Yin (尹田) 1995) 尹田[Tian Yin]:《法国现代合同法》[French Modern Contract Law],法律出版社1995年版[Law Press, 1995]。Google Scholar
  63. (Yin (尹华广) 2005) 尹华广[Huaguang Yin]:《论我国格式条款立法规制的不足与完善》[Drawbacks of China’s Legislative Regulation on Standard Terms and the Improvement],《黑龙江省政法管理干部学院学报》2005年第6期[Journal of Heilongjiang Administrative Cadre Institute of Politics and Law, 2005(6)],第48—50页[p. 48–50]。Google Scholar
  64. (Zhang & Lu (张红勤、陆立权) 2004), 张红勤、陆立权[Hongqin Zhang, Liquan Lu]:“加强格式条款行政监管,拓展合同执法新领域”[Enhancing Supervision on Standard Terms and Expanding Domains of Executing Contract Regulations],《工商行政管理》2004年第16期[Biweekly of Administration for Industry and Commerce, 2004(16)],第23—25页[p. 23–25]。Google Scholar
  65. (Zhang 2006) Zhang Mo, Chinese Contract Law, Leiden: Koninklijke Brill NV, 2006.Google Scholar
  66. (Zhou (周哲) 2013a) 周哲[Zhe Zhou]:“重庆整治‘苹果’不公平合同格式条款——五十一家授权服务商经销商被要求整改”[Chongqing Cleans up Apple Inc’s Unfair Standard Terms: 51 Authorised Service Providers and Franchisers are Required to Amend Their Terms],《中国工商报》2013年6月6日第A01版[China Industry and Commerce News, 2013/6/6, Page A01]。Google Scholar
  67. (Zhou (周哲) 2013b) 周哲[Zhe Zhou]:“重庆整治苹果公司不公平条款有进展——三十四家授权服务商经销商承诺先行整改”[Chongqing is Making Progress in Cleaning up Apple Inc’s Unfair Terms: 34 Authorized Service Providers and Franchisers Promised to Amend Their Terms],《中国工商报》2013年6月29日第A01版[China Industry and Commerce News, 2013/6/29, Page A01]。Google Scholar
  68. (Zhu (朱岩) 2010) 朱岩[Yan Zhu]:“社会基础变迁与民法双重体系建构”[Transformation of the Social Foundation and Construction of a Dual System of Civil Law],《中国社会科学》2010年第6期[Social Sciences in China, 2010(6)],第151—168页[p. 151–168]。Google Scholar

Research Services, Working Papers, Etc

  1. (Cafaggi and Micklitz 2007) Fabrizio Cafaggi and Hans-W. Micklitz, Administrative and Judicial Collective Enforcement of Consumer Law in the US and the European Community (August 2007), EUI LAW Working Paper No. 2007/22, available at SSRN: <http://ssrn.com/abstract=1024103>.
  2. (Twigg-Flesner 2007) Christian Twigg-Flesner, The Implementation of the Unfair Contract Terms Directive in the United Kingdom (November 30, 2007), Contemporary Issues in Law, 2006/2007, available at SSRN: <http://ssrn.com/abstract=1399631>.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jiangqiu Ge
    • 1
  1. 1.School of LawFudan UniversityShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations