Pour Point Depression Transportation and Drag Reduction Transportation of Crude Oil

  • Caili DaiEmail author
  • Fulin Zhao


Pour point depression and drag reduction are two important issues in crude oil gathering and transportation to improve the flow conditions of crude oil in long-distance pipeline transportation. Pour point depression transportation of crude oil refers to the transportation of crude oil treated by pour point depression methods. In this chapter, main ways for the depression of pour points including physical methods, chemical methods, and chemical–physical methods are introduced. Drag reduction transportation of crude oil refers to the transportation of crude oil in turbulent flow state added with drag reducing agent. Factors affecting the drag reduction effect of drag reducing agent including the property of crude oil, the structure of drag reducing agent, and the conditions of pipeline transportation are introduced.


  1. Al-Sabagh AM, Noor El Din MR, Morsi RE et al (2009) Styrene maleic anhydride copolymer ester as flow improvers of waxy crude oil. J Petrol Sci Eng 65(3–4):139–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bao C (1985) Research on the heat treatment technology of wax crude. Acta PetEi Sin 6(3):85–95Google Scholar
  3. Barthell E, Capelle A, Chmellr M et al (1982) Copolymer of n-alkyl acrylates and maleic acid and derivatives thereof and their use as crystallisation inhibitors for paraffin bearing crude oils. GB Patent 2,082,604, 10 Mar 1982Google Scholar
  4. Berge BK, Solsvik O (1996) Increased pipeline throughput using drag reducer additives (DRA): field experiences. SPE 36835Google Scholar
  5. Chen J, Liao D, Chen Y (1984) Synthestical and optimum heal treatment of crude oil. Oil & Gas Storage Transp 3(2):1–9Google Scholar
  6. Choufoer JH, Van Kerkvoort WJ, Vander Meij PH et al (1973) Process for the preparation of a crude oil composition with depressed pour point. US Patent 3,776,247, 4 Dec 1973Google Scholar
  7. Culter JD, Mcclaflin GG (1972) Method of friction loss reduction in oleaginous fluids flowing through conduit. US Patent 3,692,676, 19 Sept 1972Google Scholar
  8. Day JJ, Zajac J (1973) Method for increasing the mobility of waxy crude oils. US Patent 3,735,770, 29 May 1973Google Scholar
  9. Deshmukh S, Bharambe DP (2008) Synthesis of polymeric pour point depressants for Nada crude oil (Gujarat, India) and its impact on oil rheology. Fuel Process Technol 89(3):227–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ding X, Qi G, Yang S (1999) Thermodynamic analysis for the interaction of polyacrylate with wax in heptane. Polymer 40(14):4139–4142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fielder M, Johnson RW (1986) The use of pour point depressant additive in the Beatrice field. SPE 15888Google Scholar
  12. Fu W, Guan M, Li H, Hu Z (2009) Study on the performance of oil-soluble polymer drag reducing agent. Pet Process Petrochem 40(5):66–70Google Scholar
  13. Ge T, Zhao J (2009) Research on the pattern of heat treatment on crude. Pet Plan & Eng 20(4):24–28Google Scholar
  14. Hafiz AA, Khidr TT (2007) Hexa-triethanol amine oleate esters as pour point depressant for waxy crude oils. J Petrol Sci Eng 56(4):296–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hiebert GL, Detar MB (1998) Pour point depressants and their use. US Patent 5,707,946, 13 Jan 1998Google Scholar
  16. Hu T (1997) Applied experiments on drag reducer in home oil transportation pipelines. Oil & Gas Storage Transp 16(6):11–14Google Scholar
  17. Johnston RL, Fry LG (1994) Drag reducers for flowing hydrocarbons. US Patent 5,376,697, 27 Dec 1994Google Scholar
  18. Kuzmic AE, Radosevic M, Bogdanic G et al (2008) Studies on the influence of long chain acrylic esters polymers with polar monomers as crude oil flow improver additives. Fuel 87(13–14):2943–2950CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lester CB (1985) Drag reducing agent, the basics of drag reduction. Oil & Gas J 83(5):51–56Google Scholar
  20. Li J (1996) Polymer depressants and their applications. Oil & Gas Storage Transp 15(10):7–11Google Scholar
  21. Li C, Zhang C, Sun D (2002) The influence of structure of pour point depressant on rheological properties of crude oil and its rheological mechanism. Chemistry 65(11):762–766Google Scholar
  22. Li J, Dai Y, Hu J et al (2009) Result analysis on field test of HG DRA in Zhongyuan-Luoyang oil pipeline. Oil & Gas Storage Transp 28(3):36–37Google Scholar
  23. Liao K (1998) Study on MAOC pour point depressant. Pet Process Petrochem 29(1):28–30Google Scholar
  24. Liu J (1986) Experimental research heat treatment of Da Qing’s output oil. Oil & Gas Storage Transp 5(3):25–31Google Scholar
  25. Liu X, Li H, Bo W et al (2007) Preparation of oil soluble drag reducer by solution polymerization. Fine Chem 24(5):512–516Google Scholar
  26. Luo T (1983) Heat treatment of waxy crude in China. Acta PetEi Sin 4(2):75–84Google Scholar
  27. Luo T, Han J (1997) China develops the pipeline transportation technology of drugged crude oil. Oil & Gas Storage Transp 16(12):5–6Google Scholar
  28. Machado ALC, Lucas EF, Gonzalez G (2001) Poly(ethylene covinyl) (EVA) as wax inhibitor of a Brazilian crude oil: oil viscosity, pour point and phase behavior of organic solution. J Petrol Sci Eng 32(24):159–165Google Scholar
  29. Mack MP (1985) Polymerization process for drag reducing substances. US Patent 4,493,903, 15 Jan 1985Google Scholar
  30. Manka JS, Ziegler KL (2001) Factors affecting the performance of crude oil wax control additives. SPE 67326Google Scholar
  31. Marie E, Chevalier Y, Eydoux F et al (2005) Control of n-alkanes crystallization by ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer. J Colloid Interface Sci 290(2):406–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Martella DJ, Jaruzelski JJ, Chen JJ (1992) Method of preparing alkyl phenolformaldehyde condensates. US Patent 5,118,875, 2 Jun 1992Google Scholar
  33. Meier DJ, Kruka VR (1974) Methods and compositions for reducing the frictional drag of flowing fluids. US Patent 3,801,508, 2 Apr 1974Google Scholar
  34. Meng Q, Zhang Z (1987) The test and application of friction reducing agent in Tie-Da Pipeline. Oil & Gas Storage Transp 6(1):43–50Google Scholar
  35. Misra S, Baruah S, Singh K (1995) Paraffin problems in crude oil production and transportation: a review. SPE Prod & Facil 10(1):50–54Google Scholar
  36. Motier J (1985) Compositions for and method of reducing hydrocarbon fluid friction loss in conduits. US Patent 4,527,581, 9 Jul 1985Google Scholar
  37. Newberry ME (1985) Particulate composition. US Patent 4,518,509, 21 May 1985Google Scholar
  38. Pei X, Chen W, Zhang F (2005) Study of synthesis of drag reduction agent with α-alkene. Henan Pet 19(3):81–83Google Scholar
  39. Quan Z (1996) On modified crude oil pipeline transportation Process. Oil & Gas Storage Transp 15(1):1–6Google Scholar
  40. Savins JG (1964) Drag reduction characteristics of solutions of macromolecules in turbulent pipe flow. SPEJ 4(3):203–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Seymour EV, Winkler DE (1971) Process of reducing friction loss in flowing hydrocarbon liquids. US Patent 3,559,664, 2 Feb 1971Google Scholar
  42. Shi Y, Li H, Zhou Q et al (2006) Synthesis of drag reducer for crude oil froma-olefin over TiCl4/Al(i-Bu)3 Catalyst. Petrochem Technol 35(4):371–375Google Scholar
  43. Slater G, Davis A (1986) Pipeline transportation of high pour point New Zealand crude using pour point depressants. SPE 15656Google Scholar
  44. Wilburn BE, Heilman WJ (1990) Methacrylate pour point depressants and compositions. US Patent 4,956,111, 11 Sept 1990Google Scholar
  45. Yang F, Li C et al (2009) Depressive effects evaluation of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer on waxy crude oils. J China Univ Pet 33(5):108–113Google Scholar
  46. Yang F, Li C et al (2009) Depressive effect of polyacry late (PA) pour point depressant on waxy crude oils. J Petrochem Univ 22(2):20–25Google Scholar
  47. Yang Y, Qi G et al (2001) Synthesis of poly (n-behenyl acrylate) and it’s application as flow improver. Acta PetEi Sin (Pet Process Sect) 17(5):60–65Google Scholar
  48. Yin G, Gao H et al (2002) The study on the mechanism of drag reduction by polymer additives. Oil & Gas Storage Transp 21(7):1–2, 12Google Scholar
  49. Yu S (1990) Resistance-reducing technic application in petroleum pipeline of our country. Oil & Gas Storage Transp 9(2):16–22Google Scholar
  50. Zhang F (1990) Pipeline of coagulant applied technology. Oil & Gas Storage Transp 9(5):11–20Google Scholar
  51. Zhao F, Mao W et al (1996) Applying depressant and drag reducer in fully loaded pipeline. Oil & Gas Storage Transp 15(8):10–13Google Scholar
  52. Zhen Z, Cao D (2006) Field test on pipeline transportation with DRA in Huangdao-Qilu Sinopec oil pipeline. Oil & Gas Storage Transp 25(2):33–37Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. and China University of Petroleum Press 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Petroleum EngineeringChina University of Petroleum (East China)QingdaoChina

Personalised recommendations