Policy Tensions in Transport Planning

  • Suryani Eka Wijaya
  • Muhammad Imran


This chapter discusses the identification of multi-level policy tensions in public transport planning in medium-sized Indonesian cities. The evidence shows that such tensions emerged because BRT projects had to address many different goals, ranging from reducing the economic costs of traffic congestion to reducing ambient air pollution and perceived GHG emissions. Policy tensions in transport planning arose first at the central government level with the formulation of national laws and regulations and the allocation of funds to implement transport and climate change policies. A second level of policy tension was associated with the dual roles of the provincial government as an extension of the authority of central government on the one hand and on the other hand as an independent regional government in the context of decentralisation. A third level of policy tension was related to controversies that occurred at city level among international development agencies and central, provincial and city government departments concerned with the BRT projects in Bandung and Surabaya. This type of tension, which can be more specifically classified as financial-institutional, socio-political, discursive and communicative, appeared in interactions among government and non-government organisations in horizontal relationships. While the BRT system was conceived as part of a fundamental change in the existing public transport system, whether or not the community accepted it, and to what extent, together with the planning, implementation and operational processes of the projects’ development, created this type of tension, which was heavily influenced by local context, conditions and circumstances and was associated with urban politics and local actors.


Types of multi-level policy tension Financial-institutional tension Socio-political tension Discursive tension Communication tension 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Suryani Eka Wijaya
    • 1
  • Muhammad Imran
    • 2
  1. 1.BAPPEDA of NTB ProvinceMataramIndonesia
  2. 2.Massey UniversityPalmerston NorthNew Zealand

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