Conceptualising Policy Tensions in LIA Cities

  • Suryani Eka Wijaya
  • Muhammad Imran


LIA cities are often governed through structures that operate at multiple levels. This approach to governance, where powerful organisations and actors set agendas and influence policy directions, causes policy-making processes to become complex. In this chapter we discuss the concepts of power, legitimacy, communication and participation in the multi-level governance structure of LIA cities. Four categories – financial-institutional, socio-political, discursive and communication and participation – help us grasp the underlying causes of policy tensions found at multiple levels in BRT policies and projects in LIA cities. They shed light on the types of power that organisations have and on how that power is exercised to advance BRT projects and to gain legitimacy in the planning process.


Multi-level governance Power Communication Public participation Multi-level tensions 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Suryani Eka Wijaya
    • 1
  • Muhammad Imran
    • 2
  1. 1.BAPPEDA of NTB ProvinceMataramIndonesia
  2. 2.Massey UniversityPalmerston NorthNew Zealand

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