Complexities of Urban Transport in Low-Income Asian Cities

  • Suryani Eka Wijaya
  • Muhammad Imran


Public transport in low-income Asian (LIA) cities is often of poor quality, fails to meet people’s needs, generates high GHG emissions and worsens social exclusion. After bus rapid transit (BRT) projects were successful in Bogota and Curitibá, LIA countries promoted BRT in their large- to medium-sized cities. However, the political and institutional structure distinctive to LIA cities makes it challenging to implement BRT projects. This chapter presents the complexities of urban transport in LIA cities and explains why multi-level governance (MLG) is needed to analyse the complexities of BRT policies and projects in Indonesia.


Low-income Asian cities Public transport BRT policies BRT projects 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Suryani Eka Wijaya
    • 1
  • Muhammad Imran
    • 2
  1. 1.BAPPEDA of NTB ProvinceMataramIndonesia
  2. 2.Massey UniversityPalmerston NorthNew Zealand

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