The Evolution of Policy Made by Mainland China toward Taiwan
The Chinese Civil War between 1945 and 1949 ended with the defeat of the KMT and its retreat to Taiwan. At first, the KMT refused to accept its political and military failure, formulating offensive policies such as “recovering the mainland” (fan gong da lu) and attempting to regain its power in the whole of China. In the meantime, mainland China also made a tit-for-tat policy known as “Must Liberate Taiwan” (yi ding yao jie fang Taiwan) to wipe out the enemy and achieve national liberation, shelling the Kinmen islands in 1954. This goal of achieving national unification across the Taiwan Strait was remained in all following Taiwan policies made by Beijing. But these coercive military actions caused a strong response from both the US and Taiwan, which made Beijing realize that its specific measures for achieving unification should be adjusted to adapt to the changing political and security environment in the East Asia area.