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Sleep Deprivation, Cognitive Functions, and Countermeasures

  • Usha Panjwani
  • Meetu Wadhwa
  • Koushik Ray
  • Krishna Kishore
Chapter

Abstract

Sleep is necessary for the execution of cognitive functions. Sleep disturbance causes cognitive impairment in humans as well as rodents. Sleep is essential for neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and hippocampus-based memory consolidation. This process is impaired by sleep deprivation and may involve multiple pathways. Hippocampus is an essential player in the brain, which is involved in the execution of various cognitive functions and maintains neurogenesis and synaptic processes. At the same time, it is also more vulnerable to stress. Caffeine and modafinil are recognized psychostimulants, known to improve sleep deprivation-induced cognitive function decline in humans as well as animals. Caffeine and modafinil are well-evaluated countermeasures against sleep deprivation-induced alterations in the neuronal cell proliferation and synaptic plasticity mechanism. The article describes the sleep deprivation-induced deficit in cognitive function, its molecular mechanism, and the effect of psychostimulant drugs, caffeine, and modafinil.

Keywords

Sleep deprivation Cognition Caffeine Modafinil Neurogenesis Synaptic plasticity 

Abbreviations

ABP

Arterial blood pressure

ACTH

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

BDNF

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor

BL

Baseline

BP

Blood pressure

CA

Cornu Ammonis

Caf

Caffeine

CNV

Contingent negative variation

CRH

Corticotropin-releasing hormone

DCX

Doublecortin

DG

Dentate gyrus

EC

Entorhinal cortex

ERP

Event-related potential

HC

Hippocampus

HR

Heart rate

HRV

Heart rate variability

LTD

Long-term depression

LTP

Long-term potentiation

Mod

Modafinil

MWM

Morris water maze

NORT

Novel object recognition test

NREM

Non-rapid eye movement

REM

Rapid eye movement

SD

Sleep deprivation

SGZ

Subgranular zone

SVZ

Subventricular zone

WCST

Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Usha Panjwani
    • 1
  • Meetu Wadhwa
    • 1
  • Koushik Ray
    • 1
  • Krishna Kishore
    • 1
  1. 1.Neurophysiology Division, Defence Institute of Physiology & Allied Sciences (DIPAS)Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO)DelhiIndia

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