Advertisement

Selective Use of Political Opportunity: A Case of Environmental Protest in Rural China

  • Yanhua Deng
  • Jonathan BenneyEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Political opportunity refers to the “dimensions of the political environment” within which movement participants evaluate how their collective action can achieve their goals (Tarrow 1994). The structure of political opportunity, as McAdam (1996, p. 27) has suggested, includes four major components: increasing or decreasing openness in institutionalized political systems, increasing or decreasing instability in the alignment of government elites, changing levels of elite support for collective action, and the capacity of the government to contain collective action.

References

  1. Benney, J. 2013. Defending Rights in Contemporary China. Oxford: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Briggs, A. 2005. China’s pollution victims: Still seeking a dependable remedy. Georgetown International Environmental Law Review 18: 305–333.Google Scholar
  3. Cai, Y. 2008. Power structure and regime resilience: Contentious politics in China. British Journal of Political Science 38(3): 411–432.Google Scholar
  4. Cai, Y. 2010. Collective Resistance in China: Why Popular Protests Succeed or Fail. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Chang, H. 2007. “‘Yi hao wenjian zuo ban, Chen Xiwen jiedu ‘xin nongcun jianshe yuannian’” (“Number one document” issued yesterday, Chen Xiwen analyses “the first year of construction of the new countryside”). Caijing Wang (Business and Economics Net). Available at http://www.caijing.com.cn/2007-01-30/100016039.html.
  6. Costain, A.N. 1992. Inviting Women’s Rebellion: A Political Process Interpretation of the Women’s Movement. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Deng, Y., and K. J. O’Brien. 2013. Relational Repression in China: Using Social Ties to Demobilize Protesters. The China Quarterly 215: 533–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Deng, Y., and K.J. O’Brien. 2014. Societies of senior citizens and popular protest in rural Zhejiang. The China Journal 71: 172–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Deng, Y., and G. Yang. 2013. Pollution and Protest in China: Environmental Mobilization in Context. The China Quarterly 214: 321–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Downs, A. 1967. Inside Bureaucracy. Boston: Little, Brown.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Goffman, E., and B.M. Berger. 1986. Frame Analysis. Boston: Northeastern University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Goodwin, J., J.M. Jasper, and J. Khattra. 1999. Caught in a winding, snarling vine: The structural bias of political process theory. Sociological Forum 14(1): 27–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Huashui Township Government. 2004. “Guanyu yaoqiu xunsu jianli lipei jizhi jiejue zhuxi gongneng qu maodun jiufen de baogao” (Report on the necessity to establish timely compensation mechanism for solving conflicts in the Zhuxi Functional Area), July 6, 2004.Google Scholar
  14. Keck, M.E., and K. Sikkink. 1998. Activists Beyond Borders. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Koopmans, R. 2004. Movements and media: Selection processes and evolutionary dynamics in the public sphere. Theory and Society 33(3): 367–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kremmel, K., and B. Pali. 2015. “Refugee Protests and Political Agency: Framing Dissensus through Precarity.” In: R. Sollund (ed.) Green Harms and Crimes: Critical Criminology in a Changing World. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kurzman, C. 1996. Structural Opportunity and Perceived Opportunity in Social-Movement Theory: The Iranian revolution of 1979. American Sociological Review 61(1): 153–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Li, Y. 2005. Dang zhuiqiu jingji liyi zaoyu huanbao fengbao he nengyuan weiji (The pursuit of economic benefit encounters the environmental protection storm and the energy crisis). Zhongguo Xin Shidai (China’s New Era), February 24, 2005.Google Scholar
  19. Lieberthal, K. 1997. China’s governing system and its impact on environmental policy implementation. China Environmental Series 1: 3–8.Google Scholar
  20. McAdam, D. 1982. Political Process and the Development of Black Insurgency. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  21. McAdam, D. 1996. “Conceptual Origins, Current Problems, Future Directions.” In: D. McAdam, J.D. McCarthy, and M.N. Zald (eds.) Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements: Political Opportunities, Mobilizing Structures, and Cultural Framings. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Meyer, D.S., and W.A. Gamson. 1996. “Framing Political Opportunity.” In: D. McAdam, J.D. McCarthy, and M.N. Zald (eds.) Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements: Political Opportunities, Mobilizing Structures, and Cultural Framings. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  23. O’Brien, K.J., and L. Li. 2006. Rightful Resistance in Rural China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  24. O’Brien, K.J., and Y. Deng. 2015. Repression backfires: Tactical radicalization and protest spectacle in rural China. Journal of Contemporary China 93: 457–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pan, Y. 2004. Huanjing baohu yu gongzong canyu (Environmental protection and public participation). Zhongguo Jianzai (China Disaster Reduction) 6 (2004): 24–25.Google Scholar
  26. Sawyers, T.M., and D.S. Meyer. 1999. Missed opportunities: Social movement abeyance and public policy. Social Problems 46(2): 187–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Scott, J.C. 1985. Weapons of the Weak: Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Shi, F. 2005. Guanxi wangluo yu dangdai Zhongguo jiceng shehui yundong—yi yi ge jiequ huanbao yundong ge’an wei li (Guanxi networks and grassroots social movements in modern China—A case study of a street-level environmental movement). Xuehai (Academia Bimestris) no. 3 (2005): 76–88.Google Scholar
  29. Shi, F., and Y. Cai. 2006. Disaggregating the state: Networks and collective resistance in Shanghai. The China Quarterly 186: 314–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Suh, D. 2001. How do political opportunities matter for social movements: Political opportunity, misframing, pseudosuccess, and pseudofailure. The Sociological Quarterly 42(3): 437–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Tang, X. 2005. Ducha yinxiang lu—yige jizhe de ducha suixing jilu (A record of supervision and inspection—a report from an accompanying journalist). Zhongguo Tudi (China Land) 3 (2005): 9–11.Google Scholar
  32. Tarrow, S. 1989. Democracy and Disorder: Protest and Politics in Italy 1965–1975. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  33. Tarrow, S. 1994. Power in Movement. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Tarrow, S. 2005. The New Transnational Activism. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Tullock, G. 1987. The Politics of Bureaucracy. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.Google Scholar
  36. van Rooij, B. 2010. The people vs. pollution: Understanding citizen action against pollution in China. Journal of Contemporary China 19(63): 55–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Xie, Y. 2010. Cong ‘sifa dongyuan’ dao ‘jietou kangyi’—nongmingong jiti xingdong shibai de zhengzhi yinsu jiqi houguo” (From “judicial mobilisation” to “street protest”—the political factors and consequences of the failure of collective action by migrant workers). Kaifang Shidai (Open Times) 9 (2010): 46–56.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Social and Behavioral SciencesNanjing UniversityNanjingChina
  2. 2.Monash UniversityMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations