“Orderly Political Participation” in China

  • Baogang HeEmail author


This chapter provides an in-depth examination of Chinese “orderly political participation” so as to develop an understanding of how political participation in China is developed, regulated, and governed, how various forms of political participation function, and the critical issues that political participation currently faces. It selects and examines the three official-sanctioned forms of political participation, that is, village elections, consultative and deliberative forums, and participatory budgeting (PB). It also discusses increasingly citizen-initiated political spaces or non-sanctioned forms of political participation. Finally it briefly investigates the interaction and conflict between the official and citizen forms of political participation and speculates on the future development of political participation in China.


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© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts & EducationDeakin UniversityBurwood CampusAustralia

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