Housing and Location Choice

  • Hoon Han
  • Yong Moon Jung
  • Xueying Xiong


This chapter investigates the housing careers of older people from culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds, and how these activities significantly affect local housing and labour market, urban planning, and economic development. Generally, immigrants from English-speaking countries like the United Kingdom, the United States, and New Zealand have job and housing choices similar to most Australians. However, CALD immigrants may have diverse pathways. For instance, housing and location choice for those ethnic minorities may differ from those of their counterparts in Australia. Their location and housing decisions are limited due to the constraints of language, immigration policy, housing affordability, and lifestyle difference.


Living arrangement Location choice Housing tenure Housing types 


  1. Alley, D., Liebig, P., Pynoos, J., Banerjee, T., & Choi, I. H. (2007). Creating Elder-friendly Communities: Preparations for an Aging Society. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 49(1/2), 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Asis, M. M. B., Domingo, L., Knodel, J., & Mehta, K. (1995). Living Arrangements in Four Asian Countries: A Comparative Perspective. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 10, 145–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2007). Australia’s Welfare. AIHW.Google Scholar
  4. Bongaarts, J., & Zimmer, Z. (2002). Living Arrangements of Older Adults in the Developing World: An Analysis of Demographic and Health Survey Household Surveys. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 57B(3), S145–S157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown, W. (1995). The Effects of Poverty Environments on Elders’ Subjective Well-being: A Conceptual Model. The Gerontologist, 35, 541–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chang, S. J. (2012). Lived Experiences of Nursing Home Residents in Korea. Asian Nursing Research, 7(2), 83–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chapman, D. W., & Lombard, J. R. (2006). Determinants of Neighborhood Satisfaction in Fee-Based Gated and Nongated Communities. Urban Affairs Review, 41(6), 769–799.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clark, W. A. V., & Onaka, J. L. (1983). Life Cycle and Housing Adjustment as Explanations of Residential Mobility. Urban Studies, 20, 47–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fiveash, B. (1998). The Experience of Nursing Home Life. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 4, 166–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gao, X., Yan, B., & Ji, J. (2012). Urban Elders’ Desirable Caring Patterns and Its Rationality: A Decision Tree Analysis. Progress in Geography, 31(10), 1274–1281.Google Scholar
  11. Gardner, I. L. (1994). Why People Move to Retirement Villages. Australian Journal on Ageing, 13, 36–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Glassman, M. H. (1998). Clinical Issues in Housing Choice for Vulnerable Elders. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 31, 37–54.Google Scholar
  13. Goode, W. J. (1963). World Revolution and Family Patterns. London: Free Press of Glencoe.Google Scholar
  14. Groves, M. A., & Wilson, V. F. (1992). To Move or Not to Move? Factors Influencing Elderly. Environments, 18(3), 35–51.Google Scholar
  15. Gurak, D. T., & Kritz, M. M. (2010). Elderly Asian and Hispanic Foreign- and Native-Born Living Arrangements: Accounting for Differences. Research on Aging, 32(5), 567–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Haan, M. (2007). The Homeownership Hierarchies of Canada and the United States: The Housing Patterns of White and Non-White Immigrants of the Past Thirty Years. International Migration Review, 41(2), 433–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Han, J. H., & Kim, J. H. (2016). Variations in Ageing in Home and Ageing in Neighbourhood. Australian Geographer, 48, 1–18.Google Scholar
  18. Hayes, J. C. (2002). Living Arrangements and Health Status and in Later Life: A Review of Recent Literature. Public Health Nursing, 19, 136–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Heliker, D., & Scholler-Jaquish, A. (2006). Transition of New Residents to Long-term, Care: Basing Practice on Residents’ Perspective. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 32(9), 34–43.Google Scholar
  20. Himes, C. L., Hogan, D. P., & Eggebeen, D. J. (1996). Living Arrangements of Minority Elders. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 51B, S42–S48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hwang, E., & Ziebarth, A. C. (2006). Impacts of Residential Environments on Housing Satisfaction among Korean American Elders. Housing and Society, 33(2), 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jang, Y., Kim, G., Chiriboga, D. A., & Cho, S. (2008). Willingness to Use A Nursing Home: A Study of Korean American Elders. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 27(1), 110–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Judd, B., Liu, E., Easthope, H., Davy, L., & Bridge, C. (2014a). Downsizing Amongst Older Australians. Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute Limited, Melbourne.Google Scholar
  24. Judd, B., Liu, E., Easthope, H., & Bridge, C. (2014b). Downsizers and Other Movers: The Housing Options. Choices and Dilemmas of Older Australians, 35.Google Scholar
  25. Kahana, E., Lovegreen, L., Kahana, B., & Kahana, M. (2003). Person, Environment, and Person-environment Fit as Influences on Residential Satisfaction of Elders. Environment and Behavior, 35, 434–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kamo, Y., & Zhou, M. (1994). Living Arrangements of Elderly Chinese and Japanese in the United States. Journal of Marriage and Family, 56, 544–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kim, Y.B. (2010). Supporting the Old and Filial Piety. Seoul: Sohwa Press.Google Scholar
  28. Kim, K. C., & Hurh, W. M. (1993). Beyond Assimilation and Pluralism: Syncretic Sociocultural Adaptation of Korean Immigrants in the U.S. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 16, 696–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kim, E., & Kim, C. (2004). Who Wants to Enter a Long-term Care Facility in a Rapidly Aging Non-Western Society? Attitudes of Older Koreans Toward Long-term Care Facilities. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 52, 2114–2119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kim, J., & Lauderdale, D. S. (2002). The Role of Community Context in Immigrant Elderly Living Arrangements. Research on Aging, 24(6), 630–653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kirtz, M. M., Gurak, D. T., & Chen, L. (2000). Elderly Immigrants: Their Composition and Living Arrangements. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 27(1), 85–114.Google Scholar
  32. Lan, P. C. (2002). Subcontracting Filial Piety: Elder Care in Ethnic Chinese Immigrant Families in California. Journal of Family Issues, 23(7), 812–835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lee, D. T. F., Woo, J., & Mackenzie, A. E. (2002). The Cultural Context of Adjusting to Nursing Home Life: Chinese Elders’ Perspectives. The Gerontologist, 42(5), 667–675.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lee, H. K., Lee, H. Y., & Lee, J. (2009). Predictors of Facility Adaptation in Nursing Home Residents. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 39(2), 177–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lewin, F. A. (2001). The Meaning of Home Among Elderly Immigrants: Directions for Future Research and Theoretical Development. Housing Studies, 16(3), 353–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. McCormick, W., Ohata, C., Uomoto, J., Young, H., Graves, A., Kukull, W., et al. (2002). Similarities and Differences in Attitudes Toward Long-term Care Between Japanese Americans and Caucasian Americans. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 50, 1149–1150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. McHugh, K. E. (2003). Three Faces of Ageism: Society, Image and Place. Ageing & Society, 23(2), 165–185. Scholar
  38. Mui, A., Choi, N., & Monk, A. (1998). Long-term Care and Ethnicity. Westport, CT: Auburn House.Google Scholar
  39. Nay, R. (1995). Nursing Home Residents’ Perceptions of Relocation. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 4, 319–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ng, C. F., Northcott, H. C., & Abu-Laban, S. M. (2007). Housing and Living Arrangements of South Asian Immigrant Seniors in Edmonton, Alberta. Canadian Journal of Aging, 26(3), 185–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Olson, L. K. (2001). Age Through Ethnic Lenses. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Rittlefield Publishers.Google Scholar
  42. Painter, G., Gabriel, S., & Myers, D. (2001). Race, Immigrant Status, and Housing Tenure Choice. Journal of Urban Economics, 49, 150–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Park, A., & Ziegler, F. (2016). A Home for Life? A Critical Perspective on Housing Choice for “Downsizers” in the UK. Architecture_MPS, 9(2), 1–21.Google Scholar
  44. Phillips, D. (2006). Dislocating Segregation: Understanding Minority Ethnic Housing Integration. Paper Presented at the ENHR Conference ‘Housing in an Expanding Europe: Theory, Policy, Participation and Implementation’, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 2–5 July.Google Scholar
  45. Pope, N. D., & Kang, B. (2010). Residential Relocation in Later Life: A Comparison of Proactive and Reactive Moves. Journal of Housing for the Elderly, 24(2), 193–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Property Council of Australia. (2014). National Overview of the Retirement Village Sector. Retrieved from
  47. PwC Australia and Property Council of Australia. (2017). Retirement Census Report. Retrieved from
  48. Scocco, P., Rapattoni, M., & Fantoni, G. (2006). Nursing Home Institutionalization: A Source of Eustress or Distress for the Elderly? International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21, 281–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Seo, Y. K., & Mazumdar, S. (2011). Feeling at Home: Korean Americans in Senior Public Housing. Journal of Aging Studies, 25, 233–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Shea, J., & Inman, M. (1994). An Ecological Model for Assessment of Housing Design for Aging Populations. Housing and Society, 21(3), 91–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Shin, K. A. (2011). Defamilization of Elderly Care and the Experiences of the Aged. Korean Journal of Sociology, 45(4), 64–96.Google Scholar
  52. Stimson, R. J., & McCrea, R. (2004). A Push-pull Framework for Modelling the Relocation of Retirees to a Retirement Village: The Australian Experience. Environment and Planning A, 36, 1451–1470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Thomasma, M., Yeaworth, R. C., & McCabe, B. W. (1990). Moving Day: Relocation and Anxiety in Institutionalized Elderly. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 16(7), 18–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Tran, K., Kaddatz, J., & Allard, P. (2005). South Asians in Canada: Unity Through Diversity. Canadian Social Trends, 78, 20–25. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.Google Scholar
  55. Wallace, S., Levy-Storms, L., Kington, R., & Andersen, R. (1998). The Persistence of Race and Ethnicity in the Use of Long-term Care. Journals of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 53, S104–S112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wilmoth, J. (2001). Living Arrangements Among Older Immigrants in the United States. The Gerontologist, 41(2), 228–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Zhou, Y. (2003). Housing Tenure Choice of Taiwanese Immigrants: A Different Path to Residential Assimilation. Lusk Center Working Paper Series 2003.Google Scholar
  58. Zhu, L. Y., & Shelton, G. G. (1996). The Relationship of Housing Costs and Quality to Housing Satisfaction of Older American Homeowners: Regional and Racial Differences. Housing and Society, 23(2), 15–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hoon Han
    • 1
  • Yong Moon Jung
    • 2
  • Xueying Xiong
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Built EnvironmentUNSW AustraliaSydneyAustralia
  2. 2.Centre for Business and Social InnovationUniversity of Technology SydneySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations