Advertisement

Physiological, Biochemical, Growth, and Yield Responses of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) Plants Grown on Different Sewage Sludge–Fly Ash Mixture (SLASH) Ratios

  • Bhavisha Sharma
  • Rajeev Pratap SinghEmail author
Conference paper

Abstract

Agricultural utilization of sewage sludge (SS) and fly ash (FA) can be explored as an alternative and sustainable waste management option to recycle valuable plant nutrients present in both the wastes. A pot experiment was carried out to assess the effects of different sewage sludge–fly ash mixture (SLASH) ratios on physiological, biochemical, growth, and yield responses of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) plants. The study comprised of four mixtures prepared by mixing sewage sludge and fly ash in four different ratios denoted as A [4(SS): 1(FA)], B [4(SS): 2(FA)], C [4(SS): 3(FA)], and D [4(SS): 4(FA)], respectively, and agricultural farm soil which served as control. Experimental results revealed a significant increase in total chlorophyll and carotenoid content in plants grown at all the four SLASH mixture ratios as compared to control plants. Different biochemical parameters such as protein, proline, phenol and thiol content, and lipid peroxidation and peroxidase activity also increased significantly at both the ages of observation [45 and 65 days after sowing (DAS)] in plants grown at different SLASH mixtures as compared to control plants. The test plant also showed positive morphological response to different SLASH mixture ratios as evident by significant increment in root and shoot length, number of leaves, leaf area, root, shoot, and total biomass in comparison to control plants. Similarly, yield also increased significantly in all the SLASH mixtures with maximum increment of 87.8% shown by SLASH mixture A followed by C (87.5%) and B (84.8%). The results of the study suggest that SLASH mixtures A, B, and C may be a good option to utilize as a fertilizer supplement or soil amendment for Radish as shown by increased chlorophyll and protein content along with antioxidant levels, indicating toward strong antioxidant defense which resulted in enhanced growth parameters, biomass accumulation, and yield of plants.

Keywords

Sewage sludge Fly ash Recycling Radish Yield 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Authors are thankful to Head, Department of Environment and Sustainable Development (DESD), Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi for providing necessary facilities during the research work. Ms. Bhavisha Sharma is also thankful to University Grants Commission, New Delhi for providing Senior Research Fellowship.

References

  1. 1.
    Ajaz S, Tiyagi S (2003) Effect of different concentrations of fly-ash on the growth of cucumber plant, Cucumis sativus. Arch Agron Soil Sci 49:457–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alvarenga P, Palma P, Mourinha C, Farto M, Dores J, Patanita M, Cunha-Queda C, Natal-da-Luz T, Renaud M, Sousa JP (2017) Recycling organic wastes to agricultural land as a way to improve its quality: a field study to evaluate benefits and risks. Waste Manage 61:582–592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Antolín MC, Muro I, Sánchez-Díaz M (2010) Application of sewage sludge improves growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant activities of nodulated alfalfa plants under drought conditions. Environ Exp Bot 68(1):75–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bates LS, Waldren RP, Teare ID (1973) Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant Soil 39(1):205–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bhat MA, Kirmani NA, Agrawal HP, Bhat MI, Wani MA (2011) Heavy metal phytotoxicity to radish (Raphanus sativus L.) in a digested sludge-amended gangetic alluvium. Soil Sediment Contamin An Int J 20(6): 733–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bray HG, Thorpe WV (1954) Analysis of phenolic compounds of interest in metabolism. Methods Biochem Anal 1:27–52Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Britton C, Mehley AC (1955) Assay of catalase and peroxidase. In: Colowick SP, Kalpan NO (eds) Methods in Enzymology, vol II. Academic Press Inc., New York, p 764Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dietz KJ (2005) Plant thiol enzymes and thiol homeostasis in relation to thiol-dependent redox regulation and oxidative stress. In: Smrinoff N (ed) Antioxidants and reactive oxygen species in plants, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, pp 25–52Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Duxbury AC, Yentsch CS (1956) Plankton pigment monographs. J Marine Res 15:91–101Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fahey RC, Brown WC, Adams WB, Worsham MB (1978) Occurrence of glutathione in bacteria. J Bacteriol 133(3):1126–1129Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gupta AK, Sinha S (2009) Growth and metal accumulation response of Vigna radiata L. var PDM 54 (mung bean) grown on fly ash-amended soil: effect on dietary intake. Environ Geochem Health 31(4):463–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gupta AK, Mishra RK, Sinha S, Lee BK (2010) Growth, metal accumulation and yield performance of Brassica campestris L. (cv. Pusa Jaikisan) grown on soil amended with tannery sludge/fly ash mixture. Ecol Eng 36(8):981–991CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gupta AK, Singh RP, Ibrahim MH, Lee BK (2012) Fly ash for agriculture: implications for soil properties, nutrients, heavy metals, plant growth and pest control. Agroecology and strategies for climate change. Springer, Netherlands, pp 269–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Heath RL, Packer L (1968) Photoperoxidation in isolated chloroplasts: I. Kinetics and stoichiometry of fatty acid peroxidation. Arch Biochem Biophys 125(1):189–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kenneth E, Pallet KE, Young J (2000) Carotenoids. antioxidants in higher plants in Taiwan. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 61:497–504Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Latare AM, Kumar O, Singh SK, Gupta A (2014) Direct and residual effect of sewage sludge on yield, heavy metals content and soil fertility under rice–wheat system. Ecol Eng 69:17–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lopareva-Pohu A, Verdin A, Garçon G, Sahraoui ALH, Pourrut B, Debiane D, Waterlot C, Laruelle F, Bidar G, Douay F, Shirali P (2011) Influence of fly ash aided phytostabilisation of Pb, Cd and Zn highly contaminated soils on Lolium perenne and Trifolium repens metal transfer and physiological stress. Environ Pollut 159(6):1721–1729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL et al (1951) Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Boil Chem 193(1):265–275Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Maclachlan S, Zalik S (1963) Plastid structure, chlorophyll concentration, and free amino acid composition of a chlorophyll mutant of barley. Can J Bot 41(7):1053–1062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Masto RE, Sunar KK, Sengupta T, Ram LC, Rout TK, Selvi VA, George J, Sinha AK (2012) Evaluation of the co-application of fly ash and sewage sludge on soil biological and biochemical quality. Environ Technol 33(8):897–905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sajwan KS, Paramasivam S, Alva AK, Sahi SV (2006) Fly ash-organic byproduct mixture as soil amendment. In: Soil and water pollution monitoring, protection and remediation, pp 387–399Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sharma B, Sarkar A, Singh P, Singh RP (2017) Agricultural utilization of biosolids: a review on potential effects on soil and plant grown. Waste Manage 64:117–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sharma B, Kothari R, Singh RP (2018) Growth performance, metal accumulation and biochemical responses of Palak (Beta vulgaris L. var. Allgreen H-1) grown on soil amended with sewage sludge-fly ash mixtures. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25:12619–12640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sharma SS, Schat H, Vooijs R (1998) In vitro alleviation of heavy metal-induced enzyme inhibition by proline. Phytochemistry 49(6):1531–1535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Singh A, Sharma RK, Agrawal SB (2008) Effects of fly ash incorporation on heavy metal accumulation, growth and yield responses of Beta vulgaris plants. Bioresour Technol 99(15):7200–7207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Singh RP, Agrawal M (2007) Effects of sewage sludge amendment on heavy metal accumulation and consequent responses of Beta vulgaris plants. Chemosphere 67(11):2229–2240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Singh RP, Agrawal M (2008) Potential benefits and risks of land application of sewage sludge. Waste Manage 28(2):347–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Singh RP, Agrawal M (2009) Use of sewage sludge as fertiliser supplement for Abelmoschus esculentus plants: physiological, biochemical and growth responses. Int J Environ Waste Manage 3(1–2):91–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Singh RP, Agrawal M (2010) Biochemical and physiological responses of rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown on different sewage sludge amendments rates. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 84(5):606–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Singh RP, Agrawal M (2010) Variations in heavy metal accumulation, growth and yield of rice plants grown at different sewage sludge amendment rates. Ecotox Environ Safe 73(4):632–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Singh RP, Agrawal M (2010) Effect of different sewage sludge applications on growth and yield of Vigna radiata L. field crop: metal uptake by plant. Ecol Eng 36(7):969–972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Singh RP, Singh P, Ibrahim MH, Hashim R (2012) Land application of sewage sludge: physicochemical and microbial response. Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology. Springer, New York, pp 41–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Singh RP, Sharma B, Sarkar A, Sengupta C, Singh P, Ibrahim MH (2014) Biological responses of agricultural soils to fly-ash amendment. In: Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology. Springer International Publishing, 232, pp 45–60Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Singh RP, Sarkar A (2015) Waste management: challenges, threats and opportunities. Nova Science Inc., New York. ISBN 978-1-63482-150-6Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wong JWC, Selvam A (2009) Growth and elemental accumulation of plants grown in acidic soil amended with coal fly ash–sewage sludge co-compost. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 57(3):515–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environment & Sustainable Development, Institute of Environment & Sustainable DevelopmentBanaras Hindu UniversityVaranasiIndia

Personalised recommendations