Advertisement

Plasma Arc Technology: A Potential Solution Toward Waste to Energy Conversion and of GHGs Mitigation

  • A. Hazra
  • S. Das
  • A. Ganguly
  • P. Das
  • P. K. Chatterjee
  • N. C. Murmu
  • Priyabrata BanerjeeEmail author
Conference paper

Abstract

Recently, the sustainable waste management (SWM) has drawn enormous concern throughout the world. Improper waste management aggregates to a large extent of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission, which has an adverse impact on the climatic conditions. Direct or indirect mitigation of GHG emission through safe and energy recovery process is an efficient method toward sustainable waste management from environmental point of view. In this relevance, Plasma Arc technology has high potential in waste destruction and energy recovery by producing high calorific value syn gas (CO, H2). In the present study, emission of GHGs and its effective mitigation are correlated with municipal solid waste (MSW) management procedure. Component wise efficiency evaluation of MSW toward the energy recovery shows the capability to diminish the demand of conventional fuel resources. It has been noticed that the major component of MSW are paper and plastics, which posses high calorific value and in its consequence greater energy recovery efficiency. In MSW, carbon–nitrogen (C/N) ratio and metal content are very high, which are very much responsible for GHGs generation due to improper disposal methods such as incineration, landfilling. In actual practice, reduction of generated waste and mitigation of waste generated GHGs, recycling, and suitable disposal methods with efficient energy recovery should be prioritized. Plasma-driven technologies can be an efficient approach toward the above-mentioned visions. Presently, these technologies are significantly implemented in various parts of world with considerable efficiency. In India, though these methods are not generally implemented but various policies and missions like Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM), which has become the largest movement toward cleanliness, highly emphaszes the SWM. These approaches can assist give a timely solution in mitigation of GHGs in a safe and efficient way in comparison to the existing technologies.

Keywords

Municipal solid waste Plasma arc technology Greenhouse gas mitigation Energy recovery 

Notes

Acknowledgement

Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of India sponsored DST-TSG (vide letter no.-DST/TSG/WM/2015/459) (GAP-211712) project is hereby acknowledged.

References

  1. 1.
    U.S EPA (2016) Climate change indicators: global greenhouse gas emissions. Climate Change Indicators in the United States, US EPAsGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    U.S EPA (2016) Technical documentation: U.S. Greenhouse Gas EmissionsGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
  4. 4.
    Climate change indicators in the United States: atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. www.epa.gov/climate-indicatorswww.epa.gov/climate-indicators. Updated Aug 2016
  5. 5.
    Hoornweg D, Bhada-Tata P (2012) What a waste: a global review of solid waste management. Urban Development & Local Government Unit, World Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2006) IPCC guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Waste 5, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES), JapanGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Himabindu P, Udayashankara TH, Madhukar MA (2015) Critical review on biomedical waste and effect of mismanagement. Int J Eng Res Technol 4(03). ISSN: 2278-0181Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chartier Y, Emmanuel J, Pieper U, Prüss A, Rushbrook P, Stringer R, Townend W, Wilburn S, Zghondi R (2014) World Health Organization. Safe management of wastes from healthcare activities. WHO Press, World Health Organization, Appia, Geneva, Switzerland. ISBN 978-92-4-154856-4Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ramesh Babu B, Parande AK, Rajalakshmi R, Suriyakala P, Volga M (2009) Management of biomedical waste in india and other countries: a review. J Int Environ Appl Sci 4(1):65–78Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Giusti L (2009) A review of waste management practices and their impact on human health. Waste Manage 29:2227–2239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shanghai (2010) Manual—a guide for sustainable urban development in the 21st century (chapter 5)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Baldé CP, Wang F, Kuehr R, Huisman J, (2015) The global e-waste monitor—2014, United Nations University, IAS—SCYCLE, Bonn, Germany. ISBN: 978-92-808-4555-6Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Amoo OM, Fagbenle RL (2013) Renewable municipal solid waste pathways for energy generation and sustainable development in the Nigerian context. Int J Energy Environ Eng 4:42–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chen YC (2016) Potential for energy recovery and greenhouse gas mitigation from municipal solid waste using a waste-to-material approach. Waste Manage 58:408–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    TERI Energy Data Directory and Yearbook (TEDDY), 2010Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sharholy M, Ahmad K, Mahmood G, Trivedi RC, (2006) Development of prediction models for municipal solid waste generation for Delhi city. In: Proceedings of national conference of advances in mechanical engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India, 20–21 Jan 2006Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Asnani PU (2006) Solid waste management. India Infrastructure Report, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wanga X, Jia M, Zhang H, Pan S, Kao CM, Chen S (2017) Quantifying N2O emissions and production pathways from fresh waste during the initial stage of disposal to a landfill. Waste Manage 63:3–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tang L, Huang H, Hao H, Zhao K (2013) Development of plasma pyrolysis/gasification systems for energy efficient and environmentally sound waste disposal. J Electrostat 71:839–847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Isam J, Raza SS, Valmundsson AS (2013) Plasma gasification process: modeling, simulation and comparison with conventional air gasification. Energy Convers Manag 65:801–809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Byun Y, Namkung W, Cho M, Chung JW, Kim YS, Lee JH, Lee CR (2010) Hwang SM demonstration of thermal plasma gasification/vitrification for municipal solid waste treatment. Environ Sci Technol 44(17):6680–6684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gomez E, Rani DA, Cheeseman C, Deegan D, Wise M, Boccaccini A (2009) Thermal plasma technology for the treatment of wastes: a critical review. J Hazard Mater 161:614–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Moustakas K (2005) Demonstration plasma gasification/vitrification system for effective hazardous waste treatment. J Hazard Mater 123(1–3):120–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Corsten M, Worrell E, Rouw M, Duin AV (2013) The potential contribution of sustainable waste management to energy use and greenhouse gas emission reduction in the Netherlands. Res Conserv Recyc 77:13–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ryu C (2010) Potential of municipal solid waste for renewable energy production and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in South Korea. J Air Waste Manage Assoc 60:176–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    European Commission (2011) A resource efficient Europe–Flagship Initiative under the Europe 2010 Strategy. European Commission, Brussels, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ruj B, Ghosh S (2014) Technological aspects for thermal plasma treatment of municipal solid waste—a review. Fuel Process Technol 126:298–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Huang H, Tang L (2007) Treatment of organic waste using thermal plasma pyrolysis technology. Energy Convers Manage 48:1331–1337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) (2004) Management of municipal solid waste. Ministry of Environment and Forests, New Delhi, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    CPCB (2000) Status of solid waste generation, collection, treatment and disposal in metrocities, Series: CUPS/46/1999–2000Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    CPCB (2000) Status of municipal solid waste generation, collection, treatment and disposal in class I cities, Series: ADSORBS/31/1999– 2000Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sharholy M, Ahmad K, Mahmood G, Trivedi RC (2008) Municipal solid waste management in Indian cities—a review. Waste Manage 28:459–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bhide AD, Shekdar AV (1998) Solid waste management in Indian urban centers. Int Solid Waste Assoc Times (ISWA) 1:26–28Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gupta N, Yadav KK, Kumar V (2015) A review on current status of municipal solid waste management in India. J Environ Sci 37:206–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jha MK, Sondhi OAK, Pansare M (2003) Solid waste management—a case study. Indian J Environ Prot 23(10):1153–1160Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Malviya R, Chaudhary R, Buddhi D (2000) Study on solid waste assessment and management—Indore city. Indian J Environ Prot 22(8):841–846Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kansal A, Prasad RK, Gupta S (1998) Delhi municipal solid waste and environment—an appraisal. Indian J Environ Prot 18(2):123–128Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gupta S, Mohan K, Prasad R, Gupta S, Kansal A (1998) Solid waste management in India: options and opportunities. Resour Conserv Recycl 24:137–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    IPCC (2013) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. In: Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    McKay G (1996) Dioxin characterisation, formation and minimisation during municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration: review. Chem Eng J 86:343–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Li Jun, Liu Kou, Yan Shengjun, Li Yaojian, Han Dan (2016) Application of thermal plasma technology for the treatment of solid wastes in China: an overview. Waste Manag 58:260–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Woon KS, Lo IMC (2013) Greenhouse gas accounting of the proposed landfill extension and advanced incineration facility for municipal solid waste management in Hong Kong. Sci Total Environ 458–460:499–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Li X, Lu S, Xu X, Yan J, Chi Y (2001) Analysis on calorific value of Chinese cities’ municipal solid waste. Zhongguo Huanjing Kexue 21:156–160Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Zhang Y, Chen Y, Meng A, Li Q, Cheng H (2008) Experimental and thermodynamic investigation on transfer of cadmium influenced by sulphur and chlorine during municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration. J Hazard Mater 152:309–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Jin J, Wang Z, Ran S (2006) Solid waste management in Macao: practices and challenges. Waste Manage 26:1045–1051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Syamala Devi K, Swamy AVVS, Nilofer S (2016) Municipal solid waste management in india—an overview. Asia Pacific J Res IGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    EIPPC Bureau (2006) Reference document on the best available techniques for waste incineration (BREF), integrated pollution prevention and control. European IPPC, Seville, Spain, 602p. http://eippcb.jrc.es
  48. 48.
    Bogner J, Ahmed MA, Diaz C, Faaij A, Gao Q, Hashimoto S, Mareckova K, Pipatti R, Zhang T (2007) Waste Management. In: Metz B, Davidson OR, Bosch PR, Dave R, Meyer LA (eds) Climate change 2007: mitigation. contribution of working group iii to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ghosh SK (2016) International cnference on solid waste management, 5IconSWM 2015 Swachhaa Bharat Mission (SBM)—a paradigm shift in waste management and cleanliness in India. Procedia Environ Sci 35:15–27Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Hazra
    • 1
  • S. Das
    • 1
  • A. Ganguly
    • 1
  • P. Das
    • 2
    • 1
  • P. K. Chatterjee
    • 1
  • N. C. Murmu
    • 1
    • 3
  • Priyabrata Banerjee
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.CSIR-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute (CMERI)DurgapurIndia
  2. 2.Jadavpur UniversityKolkataIndia
  3. 3.Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, CSIR-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute (CMERI)DurgapurIndia

Personalised recommendations