Advertisement

Biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A Sustainable Approach

  • Shaili Srivastava
  • Madan Kumar
Chapter

Abstract

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are aromatic hydrocarbons having two or more fused benzene rings. PAH are found in environment from natural as well as anthropogenic sources. They are widely distributed environmental contaminants that have detrimental biological effects, including toxicity, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity. PAHs are thermodynamically more stable and resistant to microbial degradation due to their hydrophobic nature and their stabilization due to presence of multiple benzene rings and low aqueous solubility. Despite these properties, a variety of bacterial, fungal and algal species are reported for biodegradation. Most of studies involved in PAH microbial degradation is based on enzymes involved in PAH metabolism and their mineralization. Several bacteria have been found to degrade PAH such as Sphingomonas sp., Psedomonas sp., Alcaligens eutrophus, Burkhelderia sp. Mycobacterium, Rhodococcus, Nocardioides, Mycobacterium, Rhodococcus, Nocardioides and Novosphingobium, etc. There are several biochemical pathways and gene reported which are responsible for bacterial degradation of PAHs. Many fungi metabolize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with enzymes that include lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, laccase, cytochrome P450, and epoxide hydrolase. The products include trans-dihydrodiols, phenols, quinones, dihydrodiol epoxides, and tetraols, which may be conjugated to form glucuronides, glucosides, xylosides, and sulfates. The fungal and bacterial metabolites generally are less toxic than the parent hydrocarbons. Cultures of fungi that degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may be useful for bioremediation of contaminated soils, sediments, and waters. Microalgae and eukaryotic algae sp. have been also reported for their bioaccumulation, biotransformation and degradation capability of PAH. While mechanism of biodegradation pathways from algae are not very specific and vary from species to species. In case of algal biodegradation of PAH it works more precisely in combination with bacterial co-culture.

Keywords

Biodegradation Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) Microbial consortium 

References

  1. Abdel-Shafy, H., & Mansour, M. (2016). A review on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Source, environmental impact, effect on human health and remediation. Egyptian Journal of Petroleum, 25, 107–123.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpe.2015.03.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Annweiler, E., Michaelis, W., & Meckenstock, R. (2001). Anaerobic cometabolic conversion of Benzothiophene by a sulfate-reducing enrichment culture and in a tar-oil-contaminated aquifer. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 67, 5077–5083.  https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.67.11.5077-5083.2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Balaji, V., Arulazhagan, P., & Ebenezer, P. (2014). Enzymatic bioremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons by fungal consortia enriched from petroleum contaminated soil and oil seeds. Journal of Environmental Biology, 35(3), 521–529.Google Scholar
  4. Bansal, V., & Kim, K. (2015). Review of PAH contamination in food products and their health hazards. Environment International, 84, 26–38.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2015.06.016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bogan, B. W., & Lamar, R. T. (1996). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading capabilities of Phanerochaete laevis HHB-1625 and its extracellular ligninolytic enzymes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 62, 1597–1603.Google Scholar
  6. Boonchan, S., Britz, M., & Stanley, G. (2000). Degradation and mineralization of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by defined fungal-bacterial cocultures. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 66, 1007–1019.  https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.66.3.1007-1019.2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cébron, A., Norini, M., Beguiristain, T., & Leyval, C. (2008). Real-time PCR quantification of PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase (PAH-RHDα) genes from gram positive and gram negative bacteria in soil and sediment samples. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 73, 148–159.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2008.01.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cerniglia, C. (1992). Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Biodegradation, 3, 351–368.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00129093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cerniglia, C. (1993). Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 4, 331–338.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0958-1669(93)90104-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cerniglia, C., Van Baalen, C., & Gibson, D. (1980). Metabolism of naphthalene by the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria sp., strain JCM. Microbiology, 116, 485–494.  https://doi.org/10.1099/00221287-116-2-485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Christensen, N., Batstone, D., He, Z., et al. (2004). Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage sludge by anaerobic degradation. Water Science and Technology, 50, 237–244.  https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2004.0580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Clemente, A., Anazawa, T., & Durrant, L. (2001). Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by soil fungi. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 32, 255–261.  https://doi.org/10.1590/s1517-83822001000400001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dhankher, O. P., Pilon-Smits, E. A. H., Meagher, R. B., & Doty, S. (2012). Biotechnological approaches for phytoremediation. In A. Atman & P. M. Hasegawa (Eds.), Plant biotechnology and agriculture, prospects for the 21st century (pp. 309–328). Amsterdam: Academic.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. DHHS, U. (1995). Toxicological profile for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Atlanta: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.Google Scholar
  15. El-Sheekh, M., Ghareib, M., & El-Souod, G. (2012). Biodegradation of phenolic and polycyclic aromatic compounds by some algae and cyanobacteria. Journal of Bioremediation & Biodegradation, 03.  https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-6199.1000133.
  16. Field, J. A., DeJong, E., Costa, G. F., & DeBont, J. A. M. (1992). Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by new isolates of white rot fungi. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 58, 2219–2226.Google Scholar
  17. Fuchs, G., Boll, M., & Heider, J. (2011). Microbial degradation of aromatic compounds- from one strategy to four. Nature Reviews. Microbiology, 9, 803–816.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro2652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gan, S., Lau, E., & Ng, H. (2009). Remediation of soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Journal of Hazardous Materials, 172, 532–549.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.07.118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gehle, K. (2009). Case studies in environmental medicine toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), 72, 1355–1358.Google Scholar
  20. Ghosal, D., Ghosh, S., Dutta, T., & Ahn, Y. (2016). Current state of knowledge in microbial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): A review. Frontiers in Microbiology, 7.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01369.
  21. Ghosh, S., & Syed, H. (2001, November 5–8). Influence of soil characteristics on bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil. Geological Society of America Annual Meeting. Boston, MA, USA.Google Scholar
  22. Gianfreda, L., Xu, F., & Bollag, J. (1999). Laccases: A useful group of oxidoreductive enzymes. Bioremediation Journal, 3, 1–26.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10889869991219163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hammel, K. (1995). Mechanisms for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by ligninolytic fungi. Environmental Health Perspectives, 103, 41–43.  https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.95103s441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hammel, K. E., Green, B., & Gai, W. Z. (1991). Ring fission of anthracene by a eukaryote. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 88, 10605–10608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hammel, K. E., Gai, Z. G., Green, B., & Moen, M. A. (1992). Oxidative degradation of phenanthrene by the ligninolytic fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 58, 1831–1838.Google Scholar
  26. Haritash, A., & Kaushik, C. (2009). Biodegradation aspects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): A review. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 169, 1–15.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.03.137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hong, Y., Yuan, D., Lin, Q., & Yang, T. (2008). Accumulation and biodegradation of phenanthrene and fluoranthene by the algae enriched from a mangrove aquatic ecosystem. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 56, 1400–1405.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2008.05.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jinqi, L., & Houtian, L. (1992). Degradation of azo dyes by algae. Environmental Pollution, 75, 273–278.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0269-7491(92)90127-v.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jones, M., Rodgers-Vieira, E., Hu, J., & Aitken, M. (2014). Association of growth substrates and bacterial genera with benzo[a]pyrene mineralization in contaminated soil. Environmental Engineering Science, 31, 689–697.  https://doi.org/10.1089/ees.2014.0275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kadri, T., Rouissi, T., Kaur Brar, S., et al. (2017). Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by fungal enzymes: A review. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 51, 52–74.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2016.08.023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kiehlmann, E., Pinto, L., & Moore, M. (1996). The biotransformation of chrysene to trans-1,2-dihydroxy-1,2-dihydrochrysene by filamentous fungi. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 42, 604–608.  https://doi.org/10.1139/m96-081.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kobayashi, H., & Rittmann, B. (1982). Microbial removal of hazardous organic compounds. Environmental Science & Technology, 16, 170A–183A.  https://doi.org/10.1021/es00097a002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kuppusamy, S., Thavamani, P., Venkateswarlu, K., et al. (2017). Remediation approaches for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated soils: Technological constraints, emerging trends and future directions. Chemosphere, 168, 944–968.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.10.115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lee, H., Jang, Y., Lee, Y., et al. (2015a). Enhanced removal of PAHs by Peniophora incarnata and ascertainment of its novel ligninolytic enzyme genes. Journal of Environmental Management, 164, 10–18.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.08.036.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lee, H., Yun, S., Jang, S., et al. (2015b). Bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in creosote-contaminated soil by Peniophora incarnata KUC8836. Bioremediation Journal, 19, 1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10889868.2014.939136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Liang, Y., Gardner, D., Miller, C., et al. (2006). Study of biochemical pathways and enzymes involved in pyrene degradation by Mycobacterium sp. strain KMS. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 72, 7821–7828.  https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.01274-06.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Liang, L., Song, X., Kong, J., et al. (2014). Anaerobic biodegradation of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by a facultative anaerobe Pseudomonas sp. JP1. Biodegradation, 25, 825–833.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10532-014-9702-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Liebeg, E., & Cutright, T. (1999). The investigation of enhanced bioremediation through the addition of macro and micro nutrients in a PAH contaminated soil. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 44, 55–64.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0964-8305(99)00060-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lindquist, B., & Warshawsky, D. (1985a). Identification of the 11,12-dihydro-11,12-dihydroxybenzo(a)pyrene as a major metabolite produced by the green alga, Selenastrumcapricornutum. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 130, 71–75.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-291x(85)90383-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Lindquist, B., & Warshawsky, D. (1985b). Stereospecificity in algal oxidation of the carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene. Experientia, 41, 767–769.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf02012587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lu, X., Zhang, T., Han-Ping Fang, H., et al. (2011). Biodegradation of naphthalene by enriched marine denitrifying bacteria. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 65, 204–211.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2010.11.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Maillacheruvu, K., & Pathan, I. (2009). Biodegradation of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene under anaerobic conditions. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A Environmental Science, 44, 1315–1326.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10934520903212956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Marco-Urrea, E., García-Romera, I., & Aranda, E. (2015). Potential of non-ligninolytic fungi in bioremediation of chlorinated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. New Biotechnology, 32, 620–628.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nbt.2015.01.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Meckenstock, R., & Mouttaki, H. (2011). Anaerobic degradation of non-substituted aromatic hydrocarbons. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 22, 406–414.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copbio.2011.02.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mihelcic, J. R., & Luthy, R. G. (1988). Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds under various redox conditions in soil-water systems. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 54(5), 1182–1187.Google Scholar
  46. Mineki, S., Suzuki, K., Iwata, K., et al. (2015). Degradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons by fungi isolated from soil in Japan. Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds, 35, 120–128.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10406638.2014.937007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mir-Tutusaus, J., Masís-Mora, M., Corcellas, C., et al. (2014). Degradation of selected agrochemicals by the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Science of the Total Environment, 500–501, 235–242.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.08.116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mollea, C., Bosco, F., & Ruggeri, B. (2005). Fungal biodegradation of naphthalene: Microcosms studies. Chemosphere, 60, 636–643.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.01.034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Moody, J., Freeman, J., Doerge, D., & Cerniglia, C. (2001). Degradation of phenanthrene and anthracene by cell suspensions of Mycobacterium sp. strain PYR-1. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 67, 1476–1483.  https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.67.4.1476-1483.2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Moody, J., Freeman, J., Fu, P., & Cerniglia, C. (2004). Degradation of benzo[a]pyrene by Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 70, 340–345.  https://doi.org/10.1128/aem.70.1.340-345.2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Morgan, P., Lewis, S., & Watkinson, R. (1991). Comparison of abilities of white-rot fungi to mineralize selected xenobiotic compounds. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 34, 693–696.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00167925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Muñoz, R., Guieysse, B., & Mattiasson, B. (2003). Phenanthrene biodegradation by an algal-bacterial consortium in two-phase partitioning bioreactors. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 61, 261–267.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-003-1231-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Narro, M. L., Cerniglia, C. E., VanBaalen, C., & Gibson, D. T. (1992a). Evidence for an NIH shift in oxidation of naphthalene by the marine cyanobacterium Oscillatoria sp. strain JCM. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 58(4), 1360–1363.Google Scholar
  54. Narro, M. L., Cerniglia, C. E., VanBaalen, C., & Gibson, D. T. (1992b). Metabolism of phenanthrene by themarine cyanobacterium Agmenellum QuadruplicatumPR-6. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 58, 1351–1359.Google Scholar
  55. Nieman, J. K., Sims, R. C., McLean, J. E., Sims, J. L., & Sorensen, D. L. (2001). Fate of pyrene in contaminated soil amended with alternate electron acceptors. Chemosphere, 44(5), 1265–1271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Novotný, Č., Svobodová, K., Erbanová, P., et al. (2004). Ligninolytic fungi in bioremediation: Extracellular enzyme production and degradation rate. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 36, 1545–1551.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2004.07.019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Nzila, A. (2018). Biodegradation of high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under anaerobic conditions: Overview of studies, proposed pathways and future perspectives. Environmental Pollution, 239, 788–802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Pothuluri, J. V., Selby, A., Evans, F. E., Freeman, J. P., & Cerniglia, C. E. (1994). Transformation of chrysene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures by the fungus Cunninghamellaelegans. Canadian Journal of Botany, 73, 1025–1033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Qin, W., Zhu, Y., Fan, F., et al. (2017). Biodegradation of benzo(a)pyrene by Microbacterium sp. strain under denitrification: Degradation pathway and effects of limiting electron acceptors or carbon source. Biochemical Engineering Journal, 121, 131–138.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bej.2017.02.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Safinowski, M., & Meckenstock, R. U. (2006). Methylation is the initial reaction in anaerobic naphthalene degradation by a sulfate reducing enrichment culture. Environmental Microbiology, 8(2), 347–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sanglard, D. M., Leisola, S. A., & Fiechter, A. (1986). Role ofextracellular ligninases in biodegradation of benzo(a)pyrene byPhanerochaetechrysosponum. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 8, 209–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Saraswathy, A., & Hallberg, R. (2002). Degradation of pyrene by indigenous fungi from a former gasworks site. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 210, 227–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Schoeny, R., Cody, T., Warshawsky, D., & Radike, M. (1988). Metabolism of mutagenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by photosynthetic algal species. Mutation Research, 197(2), 289–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Seo, J. S., Keum, Y. S., & Li, Q. X. (2009). Bacterial degradation of aromatic compounds. Int J Env Res Pub He, 6(1), 278–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Shen, H., Huang, Y., Wang, R., Zhu, D., Li, W., Shen, G., Wang, B., Zhang, Y., Chen, Y., Lu, Y., & Chen, H. (2013). Global atmospheric emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from 1960 to 2008 and future predictions. Environmental Science & Technology, 47(12), 6415–6424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Silva, I. S., Grossman, M., & Durrant, L. R. (2009). Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (2–7 rings) under microaerobic and very-low-oxygen conditions by soil fungi. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 63, 224–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Steffen, K. T., Hatakka, A., & Hofrichter, M. (2003). Degradation ofbenzo[a]pyrene by the litter-decomposing basidiomyceteStrophariacoronilla: Role of manganese peroxidase. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 69, 3957–3964.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Sutherland, J. B. (1992). Detoxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by fungi. Journal of Industrial Microbiology, 9, 53–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Tang, X., He, L. Y., Tao, X. Q., Dang, Z., Guo, C. L., Lu, G. N., & Yi, X. Y. (2010). Construction of an artificial microalgal-bacterial consortium that efficiently degrades crude oil. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 18, 1158–1162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tian, L., Ma, P., & Zhong, J. J. (2002). Kinetics and key enzyme activities of phenanthrene degradation by Pseudomonas mendocina. Process Biochemistry, 37, 1431–1437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tsai, J. C., Kumar, M., Chang, S. M., & Lin, J. G. (2009). Determination of optimal phenanthrene, sulfate and biomass concentrations for anaerobic biodegradation of phenanthrene by sulfate-reducing bacteria and elucidation of metabolic pathway. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 171(1–3), 1112–1119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Vila, J., Tauler, M., & Grifoll, M. (2015). Bacterial PAH degradation in marine and terrestrial habitats. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 33, 95–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Vyas, B. R. M., Bakowski, S., Šašek, V., & Matucha, M. (1994). Degradation of anthracene by selected white rot fungi. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 14, 65–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wang, X., Gong, Z., Li, P., et al. (2008). Degradation of pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene in contaminated soil by immobilized Fungi. Environmental Engineering Science, 25, 677–684.  https://doi.org/10.1089/ees.2007.0075.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Wang, Y., Wan, R., Zhang, S., & Xie, S. (2012). Anthracene biodegradation under nitrate-reducing condition and associated microbial community changes. Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering, 17(2), 371–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Warshawsky, D., Cody, T., Radike, M., Reilman, R., Schumann, B., LaDow, K., & Schneider, J. (1995). Biotransformation of benzo[a]pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic analogs by several green algae and other algal species under gold and white light. Chemico-Biological Interactions, 97(2), 131–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Yadav, J. S., Doddapaneni, H., & Subramanian, V. (2006). P450ome ofthe white rot fungus Phanerochaetechrysosporium: Structure, evolution and regulation of expression of genomic P450 clusters. Biochemical Society Transactions, 34, 1165–1169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Zhang, X., & Young, L. Y. (1997). Carboxylation as an initial reaction in the anaerobic metabolism of naphthalene and phenanthrene by sulfidogenic consortia. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 63(12), 4759–4764.Google Scholar
  79. Zhang, S., Ning, Y., Zhang, X., et al. (2015). Contrasting characteristics of anthracene and pyrene degradation by wood rot fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus H1. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation, 105, 228–232.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2015.09.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Zheng, Z., & Obbard, J. P. (2002). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbonremoval from soil by surfactant solubilization andPhanerochaetechrysosporium oxidation. Journal of Environmental Quality, 31(6), 1842–1847.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Zhou, N., Fuenmayor, S., & Williams, P. (2001). Nag genes of Ralstonia (formerly Pseudomonas) sp. strain U2 encoding enzymes for Gentisate catabolism. Journal of Bacteriology, 183, 700–708.  https://doi.org/10.1128/jb.183.2.700-708.2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shaili Srivastava
    • 1
  • Madan Kumar
    • 2
  1. 1.Amity School of Earth and Environmental SciencesAmity UniversityGurugramIndia
  2. 2.School of Environmental SciencesJawaharlal Nehru UniversityNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations