Advertisement

Role of Plant Volatiles, Pest-Resistant Varieties and Transgenics in Tri-trophic Interactions

  • Chacko Jobichen
  • V. Selvanarayanan
Chapter

Abstract

The interaction between plants, parasites and parasitoids (tri-trophic interaction) is of great significance in developing newer pest-resistant crop varieties. One of the important defence mechanisms of a plant infested by an insect pest is to release volatiles that can attract parasitoids. These volatiles are broadly classified as herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs). HIPVs are also involved in communication between neighbouring plants and different parts of the same plant. The volatiles send clues to the other community members at different trophic levels that influence their interactions. Many parasitoids rely on these volatiles to detect the presence of their hosts. When pests attack plants, plants try to attract predators and parasitoids of the attacking herbivores with the help of the volatile chemicals that can provide various information like location, activity and developmental stage of the attacking herbivore. The release of pest-resistant varieties of various crops also influences the tri-trophic interactions which may result in changing the behaviour of pests/predators/parasitoids. This chapter elaborates the various plant volatiles and their role in the tri-trophic interaction. The introduction of various pest-resistant (transgenic) varieties and how they influence these tri-trophic interactions is also discussed.

Keywords

Plant volatiles Resistant varieties Tri-trophic interaction Transgenics 

Notes

Acknowledgement

The authors are thankful to the authorities of the Annamalai University and the National University of Singapore for their encouragement and support.

References

  1. Arimura, G., Matsui, K., & Takabayashi, J. (2009). Chemical and molecular ecology of herbivore-induced plant volatiles: Proximate factors and their ultimate functions. Plant and Cell Physiology, 50, 911–923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baldwin, T. I. (2010, May 11). Plant volatiles. Current Biology, 20(9), R392–R397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bartlett, P. N., Elliott, J. M., & Gardner, J. W. (1997). Electronic noses and their application in the food industry. Food Technology, 51, 44–47.Google Scholar
  4. Brar, D. S., & Khush, G. S. (1993). Application of biotechnology in integrated pest management. Journal of Insect Science, 6, 7–14.Google Scholar
  5. De Moraes, C. M., Lewis, W. J., Pare, P. W., Alborn, H. T., & Tumlinson, J. H. (1998). Herbivore-infested plants selectively attract parasitoids. Nature, 393, 570–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. De Rijk, M., Dicke, M., & Poelman, E. H. (2013). Foraging behaviour by parasitoids in multi herbivore communities. Animal Behaviour, 85, 1517–1528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dicke, M., & Baldwin, I. T. (2010). The evolutionary context for herbivore-induced plant volatiles: Beyond the “cry for help”. Trends in Plant Science, 15, 167–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dicke, M., & Sabelis, M. W. (1988). How plants obtain predatory mites as bodyguards. Netherlands Journal of Zoology, 38, 148–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Du, Y. J., Poppy, G. M., Powell, W., et al. (1998). Identification of semiochemicals released during aphid feeding that attract parasitoid Aphidius ervi. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 24, 1355–1368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Guerrieri, E., Poppy, G. M., Powell, W., Tremblay, E., & Pennacchio, F. (1999). Induction and systemic release of herbivore-induced plant volatiles mediating in-flight orientation of Aphidius ervi. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 25, 1247–1261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hagenbucher, S., Wackers, F. L., & Romeis, J. (2014). Indirect multi-trophic interactions mediated by induced plant resistance: Impact of caterpillar feeding on aphid parasitoids. Biological Letters, 10, 20130795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hansel, A., Jordan, A., Holzinger, R., et al. (1995). Proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry: On-line trace gas analysis at the ppb level. International Journal of Mass Spectrometry and Ion Processes, 149–150, 609–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Heil, M. (2014). Herbivore-induced plant volatiles: Targets, perception and unanswered questions. New Phytologist, 204, 297–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jeremy, M. C., Mark, K. A., & George, E. H. (2012). Combined effects of host-plant resistance and intraguild predation on the soybean aphid parasitoid Binodoxys communis in the field. Biological Control, 60(1), 16–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jin, L., Zhang, H., Lu, Y., Yang, Y., Wu, K., Tabashnik, B. E., & Wu, Y. (2015). Large-scale test of the natural refuge strategy for delaying insect resistance to transgenic Bt crops. Nature Biotechnology, 33(2), 169–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kappers, I. F., Aharoni, A., Van Herpen, T. W. J. M., Luckerhoff, L. L. P., Dicke, M., & Bouwmeester, H. J. (2005). Genetic engineering of terpenoid metabolism attracts bodyguards to Arabidopsis. Science, 309(5743), 2070–2072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Liu, J., Zhu, J., Zhang, P., Han, L., Reynolds, O. L., Zeng, R., Wu, J., Shao, Y., You, M., & Gurr, G. M. (2017). Silicon supplementation alters the composition of herbivore induced plant volatiles and enhances attraction of parasitoids to infested rice plants. Frontiers in Plant Science, 19(8), 1265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Loreto, F., & Schnitzler, J. P. (2010). Abiotic stresses and induced BVOCs. Trends in Plant Science, 15, 154–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Loreto, F., & Velikova, V. (2001). Isoprene produced by leaves protects the photosynthetic apparatus against ozone damage, quenches ozone products, and reduces lipid peroxidation of cellular membranes. Plant Physiology, 127(4), 1781–1787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lücker, J., Bowen, P., & Bohlmann, J. (2004). Vitis viniferaterpenoidcyclases: Functional identification of two sesquiterpene synthase cDNAs encoding (+)-valencene synthase and (−) germacrene D synthase and expression of mono and sesquiterpene synthases in grapevine flowers and berries. Phytochemistry, 65, 2649–2659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Niederbacher, B., Winkler, J. B., & Schnitzler, J. P. (2015). Volatile organic compounds as non-invasive markers for plant phenotyping. Journal of Experimental Botany, 66, 5403–5416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rosenkranz, M., & Schnitzler, J.-P. (2016). Plant volatiles. In eLS. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  23. Schnee, C., Köllner, T. G., Held, M., Turlings, T. C. J., Gershenzon, J., & Degenhardt, J. (2006). The products of a single maize sesquiterpene synthase form a volatile defense signal that attracts natural enemies of maize herbivores. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 103, 1129–1134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Singh, B., & Ram, A. S. (2014). Plant terpenes: Defense responses, phylogenetic analysis, regulation and clinical applications. Biotechnology, 5(2), 129–151.Google Scholar
  25. Tabashnik, B. E. (1994). Evolution of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis. Annual Review of Entomology, 39, 47–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Tabashnik, B. E., Brévault, T., & Carrière, Y. (2013). Insect resistance to Bt crops: Lessons from the first billion acres. Nature Biotechnology, 31(6), 510–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Takabayashi, J., Sabelis, M., Janssen, A., Shiojiri, K., & Van Wijk, M. (2005). Can plants betray the presence of multiple herbivore species to predators and parasitoids? The role of learning in phytochemical information networks. Ecological Research, 21, 3–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tholl, D., Boland, W., Hansel, A., et al. (2006). Practical approaches to plant volatile analysis. Plant Journal, 45, 540–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Tian Jun-Ce Tian, Ju Yao, Li-Ping Long, Romeis, J., & Anthony, M. S. (2015). Bt crops benefit natural enemies to control non-target pests. Scientific Reports, 5, 16636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Turlings, T. C. J., Tumlinson, J. H., & Lewis, W. J. (1990). Exploitation of herbivore-induced plant odors by host seeking parasitic wasps. Science, 250, 1251–1253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Turlings, T. C. J., Loughrin, J. H., McCall, P. J., et al. (1995). How caterpillar-damaged plants protect themselves by attracting parasitic wasps. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 92, 4169–4174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Verkerk, R. H. J., Leather, S. R., & Wright, D. J. (1998). The potential for manipulating crop–pest–natural enemy interactions for improved insect pest management. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 88(5), 493–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. War, A. R., Sharma, H. C., Paulraj, M. G., War, M. Y., & Ignaci muthu, S. (2011). Plant signaling & behavior. Landes Bioscience, 6(12), 1973–1978.Google Scholar
  34. Zhu, F., Broekgaarden, C., Weldegergis, B. T., Harvey, J. A., Vosman, B., Dicke, M., & Poelman, E. H. (2015). Parasitism overrides herbivore identity allowing hyperparasitoids to locate their parasitoid host using herbivore-induced plant volatiles. Molecular Ecology, 24, 2886–2899.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chacko Jobichen
    • 1
  • V. Selvanarayanan
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Science, Department of Biological SciencesNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Faculty of Agriculture, Department of EntomologyAnnamalai UniversityChidambaramIndia

Personalised recommendations