Studies on Rapid Initiation of Anammox Process for Starch Industry Effluent Treatment

  • S. Neogi
  • A. Dey
  • P. K. ChaterjeeEmail author
Conference paper


Nitrogenous waste removal is a critical step in food processing industries, which is usually carried out by nitrification–denitrification pathway. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) is a new pathway which reduces time and cost both by utilizing nitrite as an electron donor to oxidize ammonia by specific bacteria from planctomycetes group. Several lab scales, as well as industrial reactor start-up, was carried out based on Anammox using seed from the same pilot reactor. But the technology is still unpopular, due to prominent start-up information in large scale. This work was collaboratively carried out to identify the possibility of Anammox reactor start-up, to find out seeding bacteria and possible reason of operational failure of Anammox reactor treating starch industry effluent. A wide range of natural source was screened for the presence of Anammox using synthetic media, the sludge from aeration tank of starch plant, and peat bog sample from forest land was found to be active and reducing 61.90% ammoniacal nitrogen and 99.02% nitrite anoxically. This sludge was further enriched and transferred to 5 L reactor to check the removal efficiency of actual starch industry effluent. After 150 days of operation with a food to microorganism ratio of 0.75–0.92, a removal of 89% ammoniacal nitrogen load and more than 99% nitrite load were observed. The visible cluster of red Anammox biomass was also observed insignificant number from 90 days of reactor operation. Phylogenetic characterization studies of sludge also reveal the presence of Candidatus Kuenenia stuttgartiensis and C. Brocardia fulgida in reactor and in peat bog sludge from forest land and aeration tank sample from Sukhjit Starch Industries effluent treatment plant.


Anammox Starch industry Wastewater Nitrogen removal Planctomycetes 



The authors are grateful to Director, CSIR-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur, India and Director, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur and Sukhjit Starch Industries, Malda for constant support, encouragement, and permission to publish this paper.


  1. 1.
    Ellis RP et al (1998) Starch production and industrial use. J Sci Food Agric 77:289–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dubey S (2006) Study of wastes and effluents treatment in starch and allied industries. Sci Technol 3(1):69–77Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Neogi S, Dey A, Chaterjee PK (2016) Microflora from leaf debris is suitable for treatment of starch industry wastewater. Eng Life Sci 16(8):683–689CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jetten MSM et al (2002) Improved nitrogen removal by application of new nitrogen-cycle bacteria. Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol 1(1):51–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Karthikeyan OP, Joseph K (2016) Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process for nitrogen removal—a review, November 2016, pp 102–111Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Van de Graaf AA, Mulder A, De Bruijn P, Jetten MSM, Robertson LA, Kuenen JG (1995) Anaerobic oxidation of ammoinium is a biologically mediated process. Appl Environ Microbiol 61(4):1246–1251Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Strous M et al (1999) Missing lithotroph identified as new planctomycete. Nature 400(6743):446–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Schmid MC et al (2003) Candidatus ‘Scalindua brodae’, sp. nov., Candidatus ‘Scalindua wagneri’, sp. nov., two new species of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria. Syst Appl Microbiol 26(4):529–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kuenen JG (2008) Anammox bacteria: from discovery to application. Nat Rev Microbiol 6(4):320–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Strous M, Heijnen JJ, Kuenen JG, Jetten MSM (1998) The sequencing batch reactor as a powerful tool for the study of slowly growing anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing microorganisms. Appl Micorbial Biotechnol 50:589–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sliekers AO, Third KA, Abma W, Kuenen JG, Jetten MSM (2003) CANON and Anammox in a gas-lift reactor. FEMS Microbiol Lett 218(2):339–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Van Loosdrecht MCM, Hao X, Jetten MSM, Abma W (2004) Use of anammox in urban wastewater treatment. Water Sci Technol Water Supply 4(1):87–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kumar M, Daverey A, Gu JD, Lin JG (2016) Anammox processesGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jetten MSM et al (2003) Anaerobic ammonium oxidation by marine and freshwater planctomycete-like bacteria. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 63(2):107–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Strous M, Kuenen JG, Jetten MSM (1999) Key physiology of anaerobic ammonium oxidation key physiology of anaerobic ammonium oxidation. Appl Environ Microbiol 65(7):3Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dapena-Mora A, Fernández I, Campos JL, Mosquera-Corral A, Méndez R, Jetten MSM (2007) Evaluation of activity and inhibition effects on anammox process by batch tests based on the nitrogen gas production. Enzyme Microb Technol 40(4):859–865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Egli K, Fanger U, Alvarez PJJ, Siegrist H, Van der Meer JR, Zehnder AJB (2001) Enrichment and characterization of an anammox bacterium from a rotating biological contactor treating ammonium-rich leachate. Arch Microbiol 175(3):198–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fux C, Huang D, Monti A, Siegrist H (2004) Difficulties in maintaining long-term partial nitritation of ammonium-rich sludge digester liquids in a moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR). Water Sci Technol 49(11–12):53–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cao Y, van Loosdrecht MCM, Daigger GT (2017) Mainstream partial nitritation–anammox in municipal wastewater treatment: status, bottlenecks, and further studies. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 101(4):1365–1383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Neef A, Amann R, Schlesner H, Schleifer KH (1998) Monitoring a widespread bacterial group: In situ detection of planctomycetes with 16S rRNA-targeted probes. Microbiology 144(12):3257–3266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hao C, Wang H, Liu Q, Li X (2009) Quantification of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in enrichment cultures by quantitative competitive PCR. J Environ Sci 21(11):1557–1561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fatta D, Achilleos A, Nikolaou A, Meriç S (2007) Analytical methods for tracing pharmaceutical residues in water and wastewater. TrAC—Trends Anal Chem 26(6):515–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    ASTM Standard D1426 (2008) Standard test methods for ammonia nitrogen in water, ASTM Int., September, pp 1–7Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    ASTM (2012) ASTM D698: standard test methods for laboratory compaction characteristics of soil using standard effort (12,400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN m/m3)). ASTM Int. 3:1–13Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    American Public Health Association (1998) APHA: standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. Am Public Heal Assoc Water Work. Assoc Environ Fed 552Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kartal B, van Niftrik L, Keltjens JT, Op den Camp HJM, Jetten MSM (2012) Anammox-growth physiology, cell biology, and metabolism. Adv Microb Phys 60:211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wang J, Zhang Z, Wu W (2009) Research advances in aerobic granular sludge. Huanjing Kexue Xuebao/Acta Sci Circumstantiae 29(3):449–473Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyNational Institute of TechnologyDurgapurIndia
  2. 2.Thermal Engineering DivisionCentral Mechanical Engineering Research InstituteDurgapurIndia

Personalised recommendations