Removal of Ranitidine from Pharmaceutical Waste Water Using Activated Carbon (AC) Prepared from Waste Lemon Peel

  • Suparna BhattacharyyaEmail author
  • Papita Das
  • Siddhartha Datta
Conference paper


In the present study, a novel, environment-friendly and low-cost adsorbents were developed to examine the removal of some pharmaceutical drug from wastewater bodies. Over these days, pharmaceutical wastes are becoming one of the major pollutants causing waterborne diseases and drastically changing the aquatic ecological cycle. In this study, a low-cost green activated carbon (AC) was prepared for the treatment of ranitidine from its aqueous solution. This novel carbon was prepared by carbonization and activation of waste sweet lemon peel collected from the local fruit market. Batch study was performed optimizing several process parameters like adsorbent dose, temperature, solution pH, initial drug concentration and agitation speed and finding the maximum percentage removal of the drugs with the help of UV spectrophotometer for each case. The characterization of the adsorbent was studied with the help of SEM and FTIR study. The experimental data obtained were analysed using several reaction kinetics which revealed the best-fitted data. The spontaneity of the reaction was examined with the thermodynamics study. The processes studied also stated the successful development of some low-cost technique for removal of pharmaceutical wastes.


Ranitidine UV spectrophotometer Adsorption Waste lemon peel Activated carbon Thermodynamics Kinetics 



I acknowledge greatly to Dr. Papita Das and Prof. Siddhartha Datta for their guidance and help for the study. And also Chemical Engineering Department, Jadavpur University in planning and executing the project properly.


  1. 1.
    Rivera-Utrilla J, Sánchez-Polo M, Ferro-García MÁ, Prados-Joya G, Ocampo-Pérez R (2013) Pharmaceuticals as emerging contaminants and their removal from water. A review. Chemosphere 93:1268–1287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sangion A, Gramatica P (2016) PBT assessment and prioritization of contaminants of emerging concern: pharmaceuticals. Environ Res 147:297–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Li Z, Fitzgerald NM, Jiang WT, Lv G (2016) Palygorskite for the uptake and removal of pharmaceuticals for wastewater treatment. Process Saf Environ Prot 101:80–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mondal S, Sinha K, Aikat K, Halder G (2015) Adsorption thermodynamics and kinetics of ranitidine hydrochloride on to superheated steam activated carbon derived from mung bean husk. J Environ Chem Eng 3:187–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dutta M, Das U, Mondal S, Bhattacharyya S, Khatun R, Bagal R (2015) Adsorption of acetaminophen by using tea waste derived activated carbon. Int J Environ Sci 6(2):270–281Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kolpin DW, Furlong ET, Meyer MT, Thurman EM, Zaugg SD, Barber LB, Buxton HT (2002) Pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic wastewater contaminants in U.S. streams, 1999–2000: a national reconnaissance. Environ Sci Technol 36(6):1202–1211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Shakoor S, Nasar A (2016) Removal of methylene blue dye from artificially contaminated water using Citrus limetta peel waste as a very low cost adsorbent. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 66:154–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pezoti O, Cazetta AL, Bedin KC, Souza LS, Martins AC, Silva TL, Júnior OO, Visentainer JV, Almeida VC (2016) NaOH-activated carbon of high surface area produced from guava seeds as a high-efficiency adsorbent for amoxicillin removal: kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies. Chem Eng J 288:778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Banerjee P, Das P, Zaman A, Das P (2016) Application of graphene oxide nanoplatelets for adsorption of Ibuprofen from aqueous solutions: evaluation of process kinetics and thermodynamics. Process Saf Environ Prot 101:45–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tadjarodi A, Ferdowsi SM, Zare-Dorabei R, Barzin A (2016) Highly efficient ultrasonic-assisted removal of Hg (II) ions on graphene oxide modified with 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone: adsorption isotherms and kinetics studies. Ultrason Sonochem 33:118–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ho YS, McKay G (1998) Kinetic models for the sorption of dye from aqueous solution by wood. Process Saf Environ Protect 76:183–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Weber WJ Jr., Morriss JC (1963) Kinetics of adsorption on carbon from solution. J Sanit Eng Div Am Soc Civil Eng 89:31–60Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Özcan A, Öncü EM, Özcan AS (2006) Kinetics, isotherm and thermodynamic studies of adsorption of Acid Blue 193 from aqueous solutions onto natural sepiolite. Colloids Surf A 277(1):90–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pezoti O, Cazetta AL, Bedin KC, Souza LS, Martins AC, Silva TL, Júnior OOS, Visentainer JV, Almeida VC (2016) NaOH-activated carbon of high surface area produced from guava seeds as a high-efficiency adsorbent for amoxicillin removal: Kinetic, isotherm and thermodynamic studies. Chem Eng J 288:778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wang J, Chu L (2016) Irradiation treatment of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in water and wastewater: an overview. Radiat Phys Chem 125:56–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lin T, Yu S, Chen W (2016) Occurrence, removal and risk assessment of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in an advanced drinking water treatment plant (ADWTP) around Taihu Lake in China. Chemosphere 152:1e9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    US patent US4128658, “Aminoalkyl furan derivatives”, 1978Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hummers WS Jr, Offeman RE (1958) Preparation of graphitic oxide. J Am Chem Soc 80(6):1339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hummers W, Offeman R (1958) Preparation of graphitic oxide. J Am Chem Soc 80(1339):1339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Prabu C, Latha S, Selvamani P, Ahrentorp F, Johansson C, Takeda R, Takemura Y, Ota S (2017) Layer-by-layer assembled magnetic prednisolone microcapsules (MPC) for controlled and targeted drug release at rheumatoid arthritic joints. J Magn Magn Mater 427:258–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Singh D (2000) Studies of the adsorption thermodynamics of oxamyl on fly ash. Adsorpt Sci Technol 18(8):741–748CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Suparna Bhattacharyya
    • 1
    Email author
  • Papita Das
    • 1
  • Siddhartha Datta
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringJadavpur UniversityKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations