Hairy Roots pp 123-145 | Cite as

Stress-Induced Metabolite Production Utilizing Plant Hairy Roots

  • Kulwinder Kaur
  • Pratap Kumar Pati


Plant secondary metabolites comprise a diverse variety of organic compounds that facilitates defense response against various biotic and abiotic factors present in the environment. Many of these secondary metabolites are used in pharmaceutical, food, confectionary, cosmetics, insecticide, rubber, and agrochemical industries. In the last two decades, various attempts have therefore been undertaken to increase the production and accumulation of valuable secondary metabolites utilizing several approaches in cell, tissue, and organ culture systems. Cell and tissue culture systems, being undifferentiated, have limited potential to increase the production of secondary metabolites. Among different organ culture systems, hairy root has gained considerable interest due to its high rate of growth in minimal media, genetic and biochemical stability, non-dependence on phytohormones, and higher accumulation of secondary metabolites in short time period. Manipulations with hairy root culture medium and concentrations of carbon and nitrogen source have resulted in limited success. However, as plant secondary metabolites are produced under stress conditions, use of elicitors (elicitation) is one of the most promising strategies to increase secondary metabolite production. The present chapter briefly discusses the various extrinsic factors and their role in valuable secondary metabolite production in hairy root culture system.


Hairy root Secondary metabolites Elicitor Elicitation Stress 



We acknowledge the financial support from Centre with Potential for Excellence in Particular Area (CPEPA) and University For Potential Excellence (UPE) program from UGC, New Delhi, Govt. of India.


  1. Ahlawat S, Saxena P, Alam P, Wajid S, Abdin MZ (2014) Modulation of artemisinin biosynthesis by elicitors, inhibitor, and precursor in hairy root cultures of Artemisia annua L. J Plant Interact 9(1):811–824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akula R, Ravishankar GA (2011) Influence of abiotic stress signals on secondary metabolites in plants. Plant Signal Behav 6(11):1720–1731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anasori P, Asghari G (2008) Effects of light and differentiation on gingerol and zingiberene production in callus culture of Zingiber officinale Rosc. Res Pharm Sci 3:59–63Google Scholar
  4. Binder BY, Peebles CA, Shanks JV, San KY (2009) The effects of UV-B stress on the production of terpenoid indole alkaloids in Catharanthus roseus hairy roots. Biotechnol Prog 25(3):861–865PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cai Z, Kastell A, Knorr D, Smetanska I (2012) Exudation: an expanding technique for continuous production and release of secondary metabolites from plant cell suspension and hairy root cultures. Plant Cell Rep 31(3):461–477PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Chandra S (2012) Natural plant genetic engineer agrobacterium rhizogenes: role of T-DNA in plant secondary metabolism. Biotechnol Lett 34(3):407–415PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Cheng Q, He Y, Li G, Liu Y, Gao W, Huang L (2013) Effects of combined elicitors on tanshinone metabolic profiling and SmCPS expression in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root cultures. Molecules 18(7):7473–7485PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Doma M, Abhayankar G, Reddy VD, Kishor PB (2012) Carbohydrate and elicitor enhanced withanolide (withaferin a and withanolide a) accumulation in hairy root cultures of Withania somnifera (L.). Indian J Exp Bot 50:484–490Google Scholar
  9. Dučaiová Z, Petruľová V, Repčák M (2013) Salicylic acid regulates secondary metabolites content in leaves of Matricaria chamomilla. Biologia 68(5):904–909CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fabricant DS, Farnsworth NR (2001) The value of plants used in traditional medicine for drug discovery. Environ Health Perspect 109(Suppl 1):69PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Floryszak-Wieczorek J, Milczarek G, Arasimowicz M, Ciszewski A (2006) Do nitric oxide donors mimic endogenous NO-related response in plants? Planta 224(6):1363–1372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gabr AM, Ghareeb H, El Shabrawi HM, Smetanska I, Bekheet SA (2016) Enhancement of silymarin and phenolic compound accumulation in tissue culture of milk thistle using elicitor feeding and hairy root cultures. J Genet Eng Biotechnol 14(2):327–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gai QY, Jiao J, Luo M, Wang W, Yao LP, Fu YJ (2017) Deacetylation biocatalysis and elicitation by immobilized Penicillium canescens in Astragalus membranaceus hairy root cultures: towards the enhanced and sustainable production of astragaloside IV. Plant Biotechnol J 15(3):297–305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ge X, Wu J (2005) Tanshinone production and isoprenoid pathways in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots induced by Ag+ and yeast elicitor. Plant Sci 168(2):487–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Goel MK, Mehrotra S, Kukreja AK (2011) Elicitor-induced cellular and molecular events are responsible for productivity enhancement in hairy root cultures: an insight study. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 165(5–6):1342–1355PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Haghighi Z, Modarresi M, Mollayi S (2012) Enhancement of compatible solute and secondary metabolites production in Plantago ovata Forsk. By salinity stress. J Med Plants Res 6(18):3495–3500Google Scholar
  17. Harfi B, Khelifi-Slaoui M, Bekhouche M, Benyammi R, Hefferon K, Makhzoum A, Khelifi L (2016) Hyoscyamine production in hairy roots of three Datura species exposed to high-salt medium. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 52(1):92–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hashemi SM, Naghavi MR (2016) Production and gene expression of morphinan alkaloids in hairy root culture of Papaver orientale L. using abiotic elicitors. Plant Cell Tissue Org Cult 125(1):31–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Huang X, Yao J, Zhao Y, Xie D, Jiang X, Xu Z (2016) Efficient Rutin and Quercetin Biosynthesis through Flavonoids-Related Gene Expression in Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn Hairy Root Cultures with UV-B Irradiation. Front Plant Sci 7:63PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Hussain MS, Fareed S, Saba Ansari M, Rahman A, Ahmad IZ, Saeed M (2012) Current approaches toward production of secondary plant metabolites. J Pharm Bioallied Sci 4(1):10PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kai G, Yang S, Zhang Y, Luo X, Fu X, Zhang A, Xiao J (2012) Effects of different elicitors on yield of tropane alkaloids in hairy roots of Anisodus acutangulus. Mol Biol Rep 39(2):1721–1729PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kang SM, Min JY, Kim YD, Kang YM, Park DJ, Jung HN, Kim SW, Choi MS (2006) Effects of methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid on the production of bilobalide and ginkgolides in cell cultures of Ginkgo biloba. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 42(1):44–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kastell A, Smetanska I, Ulrichs C, Cai Z, Mewis I (2013) Effects of Phytohormones and jasmonic acid on Glucosinolate content in hairy root cultures of Sinapis alba and Brassica rapa. Appl Biochem Biotechnol 169(2):624–635PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kaur K, Singh P, Guleri R, Singh B, Kaur K, Singh V, Pati PK (2017) Biotechnological approaches in propagation and improvement of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal. In: science of Ashwagandha: preventive and therapeutic potentials. Springer, Cham, pp 459–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Keen NT (1975) Specific elicitors of plant phytoalexin production: detenninants of race specificity in pathogens? Science 187(4171):74–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Khalili M, Hasanloo T, Kazemi Tabar SK (2010) Ag{+} enhanced Silymarin production in hairy root cultures of ‘Silybum Marianum’ (L.) Gaertn. Plant Omics 3(4):109Google Scholar
  27. Krewzaler F, Hahlbrock K (1973) Flavonoid glycosides from illuminated cell suspension cultures of Petroselinum hortense. Phytochemistry 12:1149–1152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Krstić-Milošević D, Janković T, Uzelac B, Vinterhalter D, Vinterhalter B (2017) Effect of elicitors on xanthone accumulation and biomass production in hairy root cultures of Gentiana dinarica. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 130(3):631–640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kumar V, Rajauria G, Sahai V, Bisaria VS (2012) Culture filtrate of root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica promotes the growth and lignan production of Linum album hairy root cultures. Process Biochem 47(6):901–907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kurosaki F (2012) Induction and activation of plant secondary metabolism by external stimuli. In: Drug discovery research in pPharmacognosy. InTech, RijekaGoogle Scholar
  31. Lager IDA, Andréasson O, Dunbar TL, Andreasson E, Escobar MA, Rasmusson AG (2010) Changes in external pH rapidly alter plant gene expression and modulate auxin and elicitor responses. Plant Cell Environ 33(9):1513–1528PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Lajayer BA, Ghorbanpour M, Nikabadi S (2017) Heavy metals in contaminated environment: Destiny of secondary metabolite biosynthesis, oxidative status and phytoextractionin medicinal plants. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 145:377–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Li B, Wang B, Li H, Peng L, Ru M, Liang Z, Yan X, Zhu Y (2016) Establishment of Salvia castanea Diels f. tomentosa Stib. Hairy root cultures and the promotion of tanshinone accumulation and gene expression with Ag+, methyl jasmonate, and yeast extract elicitation. Protoplasma 253(1):87–100PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Liang ZS, Yang DF, Liang X, Zhang YJ, Liu Y, Liu FH (2012) Roles of reactive oxygen species in methyl jasmonate and nitric oxide-induced tanshinone production in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots. Plant Cell Report 31(5):873–883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Liang Y, Wu J, Li Y, Li J, Ouyang Y, He Z, Zhao S (2015) Enhancement of ginsenoside biosynthesis and secretion by tween 80 in Panax ginseng hairy roots. Biotechnol Appl Biochem 62(2):193–199PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Mallick SR, Jena RC, Samal KC (2012) Rapid in vitro multiplication of an endangered medicinal plant sarpgandha (Rauwolfia serpentina). Am J Plant Sci 3(04):437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mehrotra S, Goel MK, Srivastava V, Rahman LU (2015a) Hairy root biotechnology of Rauwolfia serpentina: a potent approach for the production of pharmaceutically important terpenoid indole alkaloids. Biotechnol Lett 37(2):253–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mehrotra S, Srivastava V, Rahman LU, Kukreja AK (2015b) Hairy root biotechnology— indicative timeline to understand missing links and future outlook. Protoplasma 252(5):1189–1201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ming Q, Su C, Zheng C, Jia M, Zhang Q, Zhang H, Rahman K, Han T, Qin L (2013) Elicitors from the endophytic fungus Trichoderma atroviride promote Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root growth and tanshinone biosynthesis. J Exp Bot 64(18):5687–5694PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. Mishra AK, Sharma K, Misra RS (2012) Elicitor recognition, signal transduction and induced resistance in plants. J Plant Interact 7(2):95–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mishra S, Srivastava V, Mehrotra S, Quadri SN (2017) The regulation of plant development: cross-talk of reactive oxygen species and plant hormones. In: Singh VP, Singh S, Tripathi DK, Prasad SM, Chauhan DK (eds) Revisiting the role of reactive oxygen species (ros) in plants: ros boon or bane for plants? Wiley, Chichester. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Moharrami F, Hosseini B, Sharafi A, Farjaminezhad M (2017) Enhanced production of hyoscyamine and scopolamine from genetically transformed root culture of Hyoscyamus reticulatus L. elicited by iron oxide nanoparticles. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Plant 53(2):104–111PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Naik PM, Al-Khayri JM (2016) Impact of abiotic elicitors on in vitro production of plant secondary metabolites: a review. J Adv Res Biotech 1(2):1–7Google Scholar
  44. Namdeo AG (2007) Plant cell elicitation for production of secondary metabolites: a review. Pharmacognosy Reviews 1(1):69Google Scholar
  45. Ni J, Yang X, Zhu J, Liu Z, Ni Y, Wu H, Zhang H, Liu T (2015) Salinity-induced metabolic profile changes in Nitraria tangutorum Bobr. suspension cells. Plant Cell Tissue Org Cult 122(1):239–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pitta-Alvarez SI, Spollansky TC, Giulietti AM (2000) The influence of different biotic and abiotic elicitors on the production and profile of tropane alkaloids in hairy root cultures of Brugmansia candida. Enzym Microb Technol 26(2):252–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Praveen N, Murthy HN (2012) Synthesis of withanolide a depends on carbon source and medium pH in hairy root cultures of Withania somnifera. Ind Crop Prod 35:241–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Putalun W, Luealon W, De-Eknamkul W, Tanaka H, Shoyama Y (2007) Improvement of artemisinin production by chitosan in hairy root cultures of Artemisia annua L. Biotechnol Lett 29(7):1143–1146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rahimi S, Hasanloo T (2016) The effect of temperature and pH on biomass and bioactive compounds production in Silybum marianum hairy root cultures. Res J Pharmacognosy 3(2):53–59Google Scholar
  50. Ramakrishna A, Ravishankar GA (2011) Influence of abiotic stress signals on secondary metabolites in plants. Plant Signal Behav 6(11):1720–1731PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ramirez-Estrada K, Vidal-Limon H, Hidalgo D, Moyano E, Golenioswki M, Cusidó RM, Palazon J (2016) Elicitation, an effective strategy for the biotechnological production of bioactive high-added value compounds in plant cell factories. Molecules 21(2):182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rodziewicz P, Swarcewicz B, Chmielewska K, Wojakowska A, Stobiecki M (2014) Influence of abiotic stresses on plant proteome and metabolome changes. Acta Physiol Plant 36(1):1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Saxena P, Ahlawat S, Ali A, Khan S, Abdin MZ (2017) Gene expression analysis of the withanolide biosynthetic pathway in hairy root cultures of Withania somnifera elicited with methyl jasmonate and the fungus Piriformospora indica. Symbiosis 71(2):143–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Shakeran Z, Keyhanfar M, Asghari G, Ghanadian M (2015) Improvement of atropine production by different biotic and abiotic elicitors in hairy root cultures of Datura metel. Turk J Biol 39(1):111–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Shanks JV, Morgan J (1999) Plant ‘hairy root’ culture. Curr Opin Biotechnol 10(2):151–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Shi M, Kwok KW, Wu JY (2007) Enhancement of tanshinone production in Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (red or Chinese sage) hairy-root culture by hyperosmotic stress and yeast elicitor. Biotechnol Appl Biochem 46(4):191–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Shilpha J, Satish L, Kavikkuil M, Largia MJV, Ramesh M (2015) Methyl jasmonate elicits the solasodine production and anti-oxidant activity in hairy root cultures of Solanum trilobatum L. Ind Crop Prod 71:54–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Singh P, Guleri R, Angurala A, Kaur K, Kaur K, Kaul SC, Wadhwa R,Pati, P.K (2017) Addressing challenges to enhance the bioactives of Withania somnifera through organ, tissue, and cell culture based approaches. BioMed Res Int 2017:3278494Google Scholar
  59. Sivanandhan G, Dev GK, Jeyaraj M, Rajesh M, Arjunan A, Muthuselvam M, Manickavasagam M, Selvaraj N, Ganapathi A (2013) Increased production of withanolide a, withanone, and withaferin a in hairy root cultures of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal elicited with methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cul 114(1):121–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Sivanesan I, Murugesan K (2008) An efficient regeneration from nodal explants of Withania somnifera Dunal. Asian J Plant Sci 7:551–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Staswick PE (2008) JAZing up jasmonate signaling. Trends Plant Sci 13(2):66–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Thakore D, Srivastava AK, Sinha AK (2015) Model based fed batch cultivation and elicitation for the overproduction of ajmalicine from hairy roots of Catharanthus roseus. Biochem Eng J 97:73–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Theboral J, Sivanandhan G, Subramanyam K, Arun M, Selvaraj N, Manickavasagam M, Ganapathi A (2014) Enhanced production of isoflavones by elicitation in hairy root cultures of soybean. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 117(3):477–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Thimmaraju R, Bhagyalakshmi N, Narayan MS, Ravishankar GA (2003) Kinetics of pigment release from hairy root cultures of Beta vulgaris under the influence of pH, sonication, temperature and oxygen stress. Process Biochem 38(7):1069–1076CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Toivonen L, Laakso S, Rosenqvist H (1992) The effect of temperature on hairy root cultures of Catharanthus roseus: growth, indole alkaloid accumulation and membrane lipid composition. Plant Cell Rep 11(8):395–399PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Udomsuk L, Jarukamjorn K, Tanaka H, Putalun W (2011) Improved isoflavonoid production in Pueraria candollei hairy root cultures using elicitation. Biotechnol Lett 33(2):369–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Vaccaro MC, Mariaevelina A, Malafronte N, De Tommasi N, Leone A (2017) Increasing the synthesis of bioactive abietane diterpenes in Salvia sclarea hairy roots by elicited transcriptional reprogramming. Plant Cell Rep 36(2):375–386PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Vasconsuelo A, Boland R (2007) Molecular aspects of the early stages of elicitation of secondary metabolites in plants. Plant Sci 172(5):861–875CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Verma PC, Singh H, Negi AS, Saxena G, Rahman LU, Banerjee S (2015) Yield enhancement strategies for the production of picroliv from hairy root culture of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. Plant Signal Behav 10(5):p.e1023976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Verpoorte R, Contin A, Memelink J (2002) Biotechnology for the production of plant secondary metabolites. Phytochemist Rev 1(1):13–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wang JW, Wu JY (2013) Effective elicitors and process strategies for enhancement of secondary metabolite production in hairy root cultures. In: Biotechnology of hairy root systems. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, pp 55–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Wang JW, Zheng LP, Zhang B, Zou T (2009) Stimulation of artemisinin synthesis by combined cerebroside and nitric oxide elicitation in Artemisia annua hairy roots. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 85(2):285–292PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. Wang Y, Dai CC, Zhao YW, Peng Y (2011) Fungal endophyte-induced volatile oil accumulation in Atractylodes lancea plantlets is mediated by nitric oxide, salicylic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Process Biochem 46(3):730–735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wang F, Zhi J, Zhang Z, Wang L, Suo Y, Xie C, Li M, Zhang B, Du J, Gu L, Sun H (2017) Transcriptome analysis of salicylic acid treatment in rehmannia glutinosa hairy roots using rna-seq technique for identification of genes involved in acteoside biosynthesis. Front Plant Sci 8:787PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Xing B, Yang D, Guo W, Liang Z, Yan X, Zhu Y, Liu Y (2014) Ag+ as a more effective elicitor for production of tanshinones than phenolic acids in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots. Molecules 20(1):309–324PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. Yan Q, Shi M, Ng J, Wu JY (2006) Elicitor-induced rosmarinic acid accumulation and secondary metabolism enzyme activities in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots. Plant Sci 170(4):853–858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Yang D, Ma P, Liang X, Wei Z, Liang Z, Liu Y, Liu F (2012) PEG and ABA trigger methyl jasmonate accumulation to induce the MEP pathway and increase tanshinone production in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy roots. Physiol Plant 146(2):173–183PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. Yang T, Fang L, Nopo-Olazabal C, Condori J, Nopo-Olazabal L, Balmaceda C, Medina-Bolivar F (2015) Enhanced production of resveratrol, piceatannol, arachidin-1, and arachidin-3 in hairy root cultures of peanut co-treated with methyl jasmonate and cyclodextrin. J Agric Food Chem 63(15):3942–3950PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  79. Yendo AC, de Costa F, Gosmann G, Fett-Neto AG (2010) Production of plant bioactive triterpenoid saponins: elicitation strategies and target genes to improve yields. Mol Biotechnol 46(1):94–104PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  80. Yousefzadi M, Sharifi M, Behmanesh M, Ghasempour A, Moyano E, Palazon J (2010) Salicylic acid improves podophyllotoxin production in cell cultures of Linum album by increasing the expression of genes related with its biosynthesis. Biotechnol Lett 32(11):1739–1743PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. Zhang C, Yan Q, Cheuk WK, Wu J (2004) Enhancement of tanshinone production in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root culture by Ag+ elicitation and nutrient feeding. Planta Med 70(02):147–151PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. Zhang B, Zheng LP, Wang JW (2012) Nitric oxide elicitation for secondary metabolite production in cultured plant cells. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 93(2):455–466PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. Zhao J, Davis LC, Verpoorte R (2005) Elicitor signal transduction leading to production of plant secondary metabolites. Biotechnol Adv 23(4):283–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Zheng LP, Guo YT, Wang JW, Tan RX (2008) Nitric oxide potentiates oligosaccharide-induced artemisinin production in Artemisia annua hairy roots. J Integr Plant Biol 50(1):49–55PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. Zu YG, Pang HH, Yu JH, Li DW, Wei XX, Gao YX, Tong L (2010) Responses in the morphology, physiology and biochemistry of Taxus chinensis var. mairei grown under supplementary UV-B radiation. J Photochem Photobiol B Biol 98(2):152–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kulwinder Kaur
    • 1
  • Pratap Kumar Pati
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyGuru Nanak Dev UniversityAmritsarIndia

Personalised recommendations