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Hairy Roots pp 295-310 | Cite as

An Update on Transcriptome Sequencing of Hairy Root Cultures of Medicinally Important Plants

  • Deepak GanjewalaEmail author
  • Gurminder Kaur
  • Praveen C. Verma
Chapter

Abstract

Hairy root cultures induced by Agrobacterium rhizogenes infection have been recognized as promising and attractive alternative source of secondary metabolites owing to several advantageous features like genetic stability, comparable biosynthetic capabilities to the native plant root, and sizable biomass production. Hairy root cultures are reported to produce all major classes of secondary metabolites, such as isoprenoids/or terpenoids, alkaloids, phenolics, and flavonoids. So far, hairy root cultures have been established from a variety of plants providing commercially valuable products, such as artemisinin (Artemisia annua), astragalosides (Astragalus membranaceus), acteoside (Rehmannia glutinosa), centellosides (Centella asiatica), resveratrol (Arachis hypogaea), camptothecin (Camptotheca acuminata), vinblastine, vincristine (Catharanthus roseus), and kutkin, iridoid glycosides (Picrorhiza kurroa). In hairy root cultures, these specialized metabolites are produced via complex network of several distinctive biochemical pathways operating in an integrated manner. However, biochemical pathways and genes involved in production of many phytochemicals have not been completely elucidated. Transcriptome sequencing of hairy root cultures by next-generation sequencing techniques has been proven to be an excellent approach in elucidation of biosynthetic pathways and genes of phytochemical production. Newly emerged next-generation sequencing techniques like Roche/454 and Illumina/Solexa have greatly facilitated sequencing of transcriptome of hairy root cultures. At present, transcriptome sequence datasets of hairy root cultures of only a limited numbers of plants, viz., C. roseus, P. ginseng, A. membranaceus, R. glutinosa, C. asiatica, etc., are available. Thorough analyses of transcriptome sequence datasets of hairy root cultures have unraveled many biosynthetic pathways and genes responsible for the biosynthesis of commercially important phytochemicals. The present chapter provides an up-to-date information of transcriptome sequencing of hairy root cultures of important plants performed by next-generation sequencing techniques.

Keywords

Agrobacterium rhizogenes Elicitors Hairy root cultures Methyl jasmonate Next-generation sequencing Secondary metabolites Transcriptome 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Corresponding author of this chapter is grateful to Dr. Ashok Kumar Chauhan, Founder President, and Mr. Atul Chauhan, Chancellor, Amity University, Uttar Pradesh, Noida, India, for providing necessary facilities and support. Also, I duly acknowledge SERB, Department of Science and Technology (DST), New Delhi, for providing National Postdoctoral Fellowship to Dr. Gurminder Kaur, who is currently working on transcriptome sequencing of lemongrass.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Deepak Ganjewala
    • 1
    Email author
  • Gurminder Kaur
    • 1
  • Praveen C. Verma
    • 2
  1. 1.Amity Institute of BiotechnologyAmity UniversityNoidaIndia
  2. 2.Division of Plant Molecular Biology and Genetic EngineeringCSIR-National Botanical Research InstituteLucknowIndia

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