Hybridity in Identity: New Englishes in Hong Kong, Singapore, and Malaysia

  • Kwok-kan Tam


Quoting George Steiner, Braj Kachru remarked in 1995 that “the linguistic center of English has shifted” (1995, 1). Statistics shows that today there are more non-native speakers of English than native speakers. According to David Crystal, there are 320–380 million native English speakers living in the UK, the US, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, but there are 250–1300 million non-native English speakers living in other parts of the world. English has become a world language, owned by both native and non-native speakers. However, what Kachru meant is not just population figures in English speakers, as he said (1995, 1):


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kwok-kan Tam
    • 1
  1. 1.The Hang Seng University of Hong KongShatinHong Kong

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