Bilingual Metaphor and Hybrid Identity in Hong Kong and Singapore Writings
In its simplest definition, metaphor, as Terence Hawkes says, is figurative language that “deliberately interferes with the system of literal usage by its assumption that terms literally connected with one object can be transferred to another” (Hawkes 1972, 2). Interference may be considered a negative thing in language learning. But in language use, in speech and particularly in creative writing, interference may result in creativity. Examples of interference can be found in the bilingual learner whose performance in a second language is often interfered with by the first language. In this case, an idea from a second language being mapped onto that of a first language will create not only a new use of language but also a new metaphor that compares two contrastive domains of experiences. Although the interference of the first language is sometimes seen as negative in second language learning, it is considered creative in literary writing and is valued for its innovative use of code-mixing and code-switching in language.
- Ahrens, Kathleen. 2002. “When Love is Not Digested: Underlying Reasons for Source to Target Domain Pairings in the Contemporary Theory of Metaphor.” In Proceedings of the First Cognitive Linguistics Conference, edited by Yuchau E. Hsiao, 273–302. Taipei: National Cheng-chi University.Google Scholar
- Chen Bingzhao (Chen Ping Chiu). 1999. Archaeological bird [Fei ba! lin liu niao, fei ba!”]. In Voice of Hong Kong: Drama 1997 [Xianggang de shengyin: Xianggang huaju 1997], edited by Kwok-kan Tam, 218–270. Hong Kong: International Association of Theatre Critics.Google Scholar
- Ha, Jin. 1998. In the Pond. Cambridge, MA: Zola Books.Google Scholar
- Hawkes, Terence. 1972. Metaphor. London: Methuen.Google Scholar
- Ho, Louise. 1994. Local Habitations. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.Google Scholar
- Kachru, Braj B. 1995. “The Intercultural Nature of Modern English.” Keynote speech at the 1995 Global Cultural Diversity Conference: <http://www.immi.gov.au/media/ publications/multicultural/confer/04/speech19a.htm>. Accessed January 12, 2010.
- Kuo Pao-kun. 1990. “The Coffin Is Too Big For The Hole.” In The Coffin Is Too Big For The Hole and Other Plays, 29–46. Singapore: Times Books International, 1990.Google Scholar
- Lakoff, George, and Mark Johnson. 1980. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Leow, Jason. 1995. “A Poem not Too Obiang.” In Journeys: Words, Home and Nation: Anthology of Singapore Poetry, edited by Edwin Thumboo et al., 138. Singapore: UniPress and the Centre for the Arts, National University of Singapore.Google Scholar
- Loh, Mary Chieu Kwan. 1998. “Rice.” In More Than Half the Sky: Creative Writings by Thirty Singaporean Women, edited by Leong Liew Geok, 190–96. Singapore and Kuala Lumpur: Times Books International.Google Scholar
- Parkin, Andrew. 1997. “Astronaut.” In Hong Kong Poems, edited by Andrew Parkin and Laurence Wong, 23. Vancouver, BC: Ronsdale Press.Google Scholar
- Xu Xi. 2001. The Unwalled City: A Novel of Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Chameleon Press.Google Scholar
- You Jing (Yau Ching). 1997. “Moon.” In Cong bentu chu fa: Xianggang qingnian shiren shiwu jia [From the local: Fifteen Hong Kong Poets], edited by Haung Canxian (Wong Chan Yin), Chen Zhide (Chan Chi Tak), and Lau Wai Shing (Liu Weicheng), 129–30. Hong Kong: Xiangjiang chubanshe.Google Scholar