Localism in English Language Teaching in Hong Kong

  • Kwok-kan Tam


Localism has to be discussed in relation to globalism, which is a new paradigm to understand the political, cultural, and economic dimensions of the new world order. In his book The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order (1996), Samuel Huntington predicted that the post-Cold War world would develop into an order, in which “the most pervasive, important and dangerous conflicts will not be between social classes, rich and poor, or other economically defined groups, but between peoples belong to different cultural entities” (Huntington 1998, 28). These conflicts are seen further seen as identity conflicts as a result of the dominance of English over the world.


  1. Appadurai, Arjun. 1996. Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  2. Borger, Robert, and A. E. M. Seaborne. 1982. The Psychology of Learning. 2nd ed. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  3. Cheng, Chin-Chuan. 1982. “Chinese Varieties of English.” In The Other Tongue: English across Culture, edited by Braj B. Kachru, 125–40. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  4. Chua Beng-Hurt. (1983). Re-opening ideological discussion in Singapore: A new theoretical direction. Southeast Asian Journal of Social Science, 11(2), 31–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chua Beng-Huat and Eddie Kuo. 1998. “The Making of a New Nation: Cultural Construction and National Identity in Singapore.” In From Beijing to Port Moresby: The Politics of National Identity in Cultural Politics, edited by Virginia R. Dominguez and David Y. H. Wu, 35–67. Amsterdam: Gordon and Breach Publishers.Google Scholar
  6. City University of Hong Kong. 1999. “Strategic Plan Towards a New Era of Excellence.” Hong Kong: City University of Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  7. Crystal, David. 1997. English as a Global Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Frosh, Stephen. 1991. Identity Crisis: Modernity, Psychoanalysis and the Self. Basingstoke: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Giddens, Anthony. 1991. Modernity and Self-Identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  10. Grabe, William. 1988. “English, Information Access, and Technology Transfer: A Rationale for English as an International Language.” World Englishes 7, no. 1: 63–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hirsch, E. D., Jr., F. J. Kett, and J. Tuefil. 1988. Dictionary of Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  12. Huntington, Samuel P. 1998. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. London: Simon and SchusterGoogle Scholar
  13. Kachru, Braj B. 1986. “The Power and Politics of English.” World Englishes 5, nos. 2/3: 121–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kachru, Braj B. 1988. “The Sacred Cows of English.” English Today, no. 16 (October): 3–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kachru, Braj B. 1990. “World Englishes and Applied Linguistics.” World Englishes 9, no. 1: 3–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. McArthur, Tom. 1998. The English Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Phillipson, Robert. 1997. “The Politics of English Language Teaching.” In Encyclopedia of Language and Education. Vol. 1, edited by Ruth Wodak and David Corsonm, 201–10. Dordrecht: Kluwer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Taylor, Andrew. 1989. “Hong Kong’s English Newspapers.” English Today, no. 20 (October): 18–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Widdowson, Henry G. 1997. “EIL, ESL, EFL: Global Issues and Local Interests.” World Englishes 16, no. 1: 135–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kwok-kan Tam
    • 1
  1. 1.The Hang Seng University of Hong KongShatinHong Kong

Personalised recommendations