Identification of Metabolites in Urine of Physical Exercise Practitioners by Raman Spectroscopy
In this work, dispersive Raman spectroscopy has been employed as a rapid and nondestructive technique to detect the metabolites in urine of physical exercise practitioners before and after exercise. For so, urine samples from 14 men were obtained before and immediately after physical activities and submitted to Raman spectroscopy (830 nm excitation, 250 mW laser power, 20 s integration time). The Raman spectra of urine showed peaks related to urea, creatinine and phosphate. These metabolic biomarkers presented peaks with different intensities in the urine after exercises compared to before, measured by the intensity of selected peaks the Raman spectra, which means different concentrations after training. These peaks presented different intensity values for each subject before physical activity, also behaving differently compared to the post-training: some subjects presented increase while others decrease the intensity. Raman spectroscopy may allow the development of a rapid and non-destructive test for metabolic evaluation of the physical training in active subjects using urine samples, allowing nutrition adjustment with the sport’s performance.
KeywordsRaman spectroscopy Urine Supplementation Physical exercise
L. Silveira Jr. acknowledges FAPESP for the financial support to purchase the Raman spectrometer (Grant no. 2009/01788-5) and CNPq for the productivity fellowship during the years 2014–2017 (Grant no. 05680/2014-5).
Conflict of Interest
No conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise, are declared by the authors.
- 2.Morton, R.W., et al.: A systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression of the effect of protein supplementation on resistance training-induced gains in muscle mass and strength in healthy adults. Br. J. Sports Med. 52(6), 376–384 (2018)Google Scholar
- 3.Bouatra, S., et al.: The human urine metabolome. PLOS One 8(9), e73076 (2013)Google Scholar
- 7.Bispo, J.A., et al.: Correlating the amount of urea, creatinine, and glucose in urine from patients with diabetes mellitus and hypertension with the risk of developing renal lesions by means of Raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis. J. Biomed. Opt. 18(8), 87004 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 10.Fedorov, I.V.: Metabolism Under Hypokinetic Conditions. Izdatelstvo Nauka Press, Moscow (1982)Google Scholar